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Project Report on Ansys FLUENT AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF NACA 4515 AEROFOIL NITHIN L DEVASIA Submitted By:

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Text of Project Report AnSys Workbench - Nithin L Devasia

  • Project Report on Ansys FLUENT AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF NACA 4515 AEROFOIL

    NITHIN L DEVASIA

    Submitted By:

  • CADD Centre Thiruvananthapuram | Ansys Workbench | 1

    VANROSS Jn.

    THIRUVANANTHAPURAM

    Certificate

    This is to certify that this project report entitled

    FLUENT AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF NACA 4515

    AEROFOIL is a complete record of the work done by

    NITHIN L DEVASIA for the requirement of the award of

    course on MASTER DIPLOMA IN PRODUCT DESIGN

    AND ANALYSIS during the year 2014 from CADD CENTRE, VANROSS Jn. THIRUVANANTHAPURAM.

    Mr. RAHUL KRISHNAN

    Senior CADD Engineer

    CADD CENTRE

    Vanross Jn.

    Mr. TINU V G

    Technical Leader

    CADD CENTRE

    Vanross Jn.

    Guided by: Verified by:

  • CADD Centre Thiruvananthapuram | Ansys Workbench | 2

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    I also want to thank the CADD Centre Thiruvananthapuram, for giving me

    quality training in Ansys Workbench and providing me the opportunity and

    facilities to pursue this project and present the report.

    I take this opportunity to express my deep sense of gratitude to my

    concerned faculty, Mr. Rahul Krishnan Senior CADD Engineer of

    CADD Centre, Vanross Junction, Thiruvananthapuram for his valuable

    suggestions and guidance, especially for the technical information imparted by him

    in both theory and practical session.

    I also use this opportunity to express my heartfelt thanks to

    Mr. TINU V G, Technical Leader of CADD Centre, for the encouragement

    provided by him throughout my course.

    I appreciate the team who made the efforts to create the CADD Centre

    course material in such a simple and effective manner. It really motivated me to

    explore more on the software further.

    Last but not the least, I accord myself the privilege of thanking all other

    members of CADD Centre who were directly and indirectly connected to this

    project.

    Nithin L Devasia

  • CADD Centre Thiruvananthapuram | Ansys Workbench | 3

    Table of Contents PREFACE ............................................................................................................................................. 4

    ABOUT CAE .................................................................................................................................... 5

    ANSYS and its CAPABILITIES ...................................................................................................... 8

    ABOUT THE PROJECT .................................................................................................................... 14

    SCOPE OF THE PROJECT and PROBLEM DEFININTION ........................................................ 20

    APPROACH AND PROCEDURE ..................................................................................................... 21

    INFERENCE....................................................................................................................................... 60

    SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSIONS........................................................................................... 61

    REFERENCE ...................................................................................................................................... 62

  • CADD Centre Thiruvananthapuram | Ansys Workbench | 4

    PREFACE

    Nowadays we are depending more on computers due to their speed in data

    processing, visualization capabilities, data storing in documentation as well as

    numerical calculations etc. They have become an integral part of everyones daily

    life. They find applications in communication, entertainment, accounting, and

    scientific research and in production industries.

    In production industries, computers are used from designing, controlling

    manufacturing operations, etc., increasing efficiency and productivity. This

    particular field of application being called Precise Engineering Cycle is further

    classified into Computer Aided Designing (CAD), Computer Aided Engineering

    (CAE) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM).

    The product designers are posted with challenge to bring out products that

    could exceed the expectations of the consumer consistently in product quality, price

    and performance. Design engineers are constantly working on these challenges in

    order to enhance the product quality and performance while reducing cost.

    Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools assists design engineers in achieving the

    challenges posted to them time to time. There are of many application packages

    which all particularly strong in specific areas of CAE. But there are also ones that

    have good all-round capabilities like ANSYS, Altair HyperWorks, Abaqus, ADINA

    etc.

  • CADD Centre Thiruvananthapuram | Ansys Workbench | 5

    ABOUT CAE

    Computer aided engineering (CAE) refers to a collection of software and hardware

    tools integrated into a system (computer) that is providing the circuit designer and

    circuit troubleshooter with step-by-step assistance during each phase of the design

    and analysis cycle, as well as during development, documentation, and

    maintenance. Under the CAE umbrella a number of commonly called "automated

    design tools," which are the software components of CAE, are revolutionizing and

    transforming engineering environments from the "hands-on' way of conducting

    business into a virtual or simulated "hands-on" mode of operating; and are having a

    tremendous impact throughout all engineering disciplines. They have not yet

    displaced bread boarding and other methods of developing circuit boards yet but

    are making their presence known to the point of being totally necessary in the

    design of certain devices. It is the intention of this report to promote the use of

    these tools in the government by providing engineering management with an

    overview of the hardware and software products available for electronic

    simulation, while covering trends, new technologies, and costs.

    CAE is also defined very broadly as The computer tools used to assist in

    engineering design, development and optimization tasks. Models of systems may

    be separated into static or dynamic systems, each having a particular purpose.

    Static models are independent of time. Dynamic models are time varying.

    Software tools that have been developed to support these activities are considered

    CAE tools. CAE tools are being used, for example, to analyze the robustness and

    performance of components and assemblies. The term encompasses simulation,

    validation, and optimization of products and manufacturing tools. In the future,

  • CADD Centre Thiruvananthapuram | Ansys Workbench | 6

    CAE systems will be major providers of information to help support design teams

    in decision making. In regard to information networks, CAE systems are

    individually considered a single node on a total information network and each node

    may interact with other nodes on the network. CAE systems can provide support to

    businesses. This is achieved by the use of reference architectures and their ability

    to place information views on the business process. Reference architecture is the

    basis from which information model, especially product and manufacturing

    models. The term CAE has also been used by some in the past to describe the use

    of computer technology within engineering in a broader sense than just engineering

    analysis. It was in this context that the term was coined by Jason Lemon, founder

    of SDRC in the late 1970s. This definition is however better known today by the

    terms CAx and PLM.

    CAE areas covered include:

    Stress analysis on components and assemblies using FEA (Finite Element

    Analysis).

    Thermal and fluid flow analysis Computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

    Multibody dynamics (MBD) & Kinematics.

    Analysis tools for process simulation for operations such as casting,

    molding, and die press forming.

    Optimization of the product or process.

    Safety analysis of postulate loss-of-coolant accident in nuclear reactor using

    realistic thermal-hydraulics code.

  • CADD Centre Thiruvananthapuram | Ansys Workbench | 7

    In general, there are three phases in any computer-aided engineering task:

    Pre-processing defining the model and environmental factors to be applied

    to it. (typically a finite element model, but facet, voxel and thin sheet

    methods are also used)

    Analysis solver (usually performed on high powered computers)

    Post-processing of results (using visualization tools)

    This cycle is iterated, often many times, either manually or with the use of

    commercial optimization software.

    CAE tools are very widely used in the automotive industry. In fact, their use has

    enabled the automakers to reduce product development cost and time while

    improving the safety, comfort, and durability of the vehicles they produce. The

    predictive capability of CAE tools has progressed to the point where much of the

    design verification is now done using computer simulations rather than physical

    prototype testing.

    CAE dependability is based upon all proper assumptions as inputs and must

    identify critical inputs. Even though there have been many advances in CAE, and it

    is widely used in the engineering field, physical testing is still used as a final

    confirmation for subsystems due to the fact that CAE cannot predict all variables in

    complex assemblies (i.e. metal stretch, thinning).

  • CADD Centre Thiruvananthapuram | Ansys Workbench | 8

    NSYS and its CAPABILITIES

    .

    Drafting & Design

    Design for assembly

    Computer aided

    manufacture

    Modeling & Analysis Dynamic analysis Rapid control

    prototyping

    Finite element analysis

    Mechanism design Discrete event

    simulation

    Manufacture

    Computer aided part programming (CNC)

    Distributed numerical control

    Coordinate measuring Flexible

    assembly/manufacturin

    g systems

    Production Planning

    & Control Scheduling Quality

    control

    Materials requirements

    planning

    Just-in-time manufacturing

    Computer

    Aided

    Engineering

  • CADD Centre Thiruvananthapuram | Ansys Workbench | 9

    ANSYS and its CAPABILITIES

    ANSYS Workbench is the framework upon which the industrys broadest suite of

    advanced engineering simulation technology is built. An innovative project

    schematic view ties together the entire simulation process, guiding the user every

    step of the way. Even complex multiphysics analyses can be performed with drag-

    and-drop simplicity. With bi-directional CAD connectivity, an automated project

    update mechanism, pervasive parameter management and integrated optimization

    tools, the ANSYS Workbench platform delivers unprecedented productivity that

    truly enables Simulation Driven Product Development.

    The ANSYS Workbench framework hosts the following software products and

    components:

    COMMON TOOLS AND CAPABILITIES

    ANSYS CAD connections

    ANSYS Design Modeler

    ANSYS Meshing

    ANSYS DesignXplorer

    FE Modeler

    FLUID DYNAMICS

    ANSYS CFX

    ANSYS FLUENT

    ANSYS Icepak

    ANSYS POLYFLOW

    ANSYS Multiphysics

  • CADD Centre Thiruvananthapuram | Ansys Workbench |

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    STRUCTURAL MECHANICS

    ANSYS Mechanical

    ANSYS Structural

    ANSYS Professional

    EXPLICIT DYNAMICS

    ANSYS Explicit STR

    ANSYS AUTODYN

    ANSYS LS-DYNA (setup-only in ANSYS Workbench)

    ELECTROMAGNETICS

    ANSYS Emag

    TURBO SYSTEM

    ANSYS BladeModeler

    ANSYS TurboGrid

    ANSYS Vista TF

    OFFSHORE

    ANSYS AQWA

  • CADD Centre Thiruvananthapuram | Ansys Workbench |

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    ANSYS Workbench Features

    Bidirectional, parametric links with all major CAD systems

    Integrated, analysis-focused geometry modeling, repair, and

    simplification via ANSYS DesignModeler

    Highly-automated, physics-aware meshing

    Automatic contact detection

    Unequalled depth of capabilities within individual physics disciplines

    Unparalleled breadth of simulation technologies

    Complete analysis systems that guide the user start-to-finish through an

    analysis

    Comprehensive multiphysics simulation with drag-and-drop ease of use

    Flexible components enable tools to be deployed to best suit engineering

    intent

    Innovative project schematic view allows engineering intent, data

    relationships, and the state of the project to be comprehended at a glance

    Complex project schematics can be saved for re-use

    Pervasive, project-level parameter management across all physics

    Automated what-if analyses with integrated design point capability

    Adaptive architecture with scripting and journaling capabilities and APIs

    enabling rapid integration of new and third-party solutions

    Drag-and-Drop Multiphysics

    The ANSYS Workbench platform has been engineered for scalability. Building

    complex, coupled analyses involving multiple physics is as easy as dragging in a

    follow-on analysis system and dropping it onto the source analysis. Required data

  • CADD Centre Thiruvananthapuram | Ansys Workbench |

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    transfer connections are formed automatically. As an example, consider the one-

    way fluid structure interaction (FSI) simulation shown schematically below.

    Drag-and-drop multiphysics: forming a link in the project schematic (at left) achieves data

    transfer between the different physics, and creates imported loads in the downstream

    simulation (shown inside the ANSYS Mechanical application at right).

    The ANSYS Workbench platform automatically forms a connection to share the

    geometry for both the fluid and structural analyses, minimizing data storage and

    making it easy to study the effects of geometry changes on both analyses. In

    addition, a connection is formed to automatically transfer pressure loads from the

    fluid analysis to the structural analysis.

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    Flexible Project Construction

    Complete analysis systems are convenient because they contain all of the necessary

    tasks or components to complete start-to-finish simulations for a wide variety of

    physics. The project schematic has also been designed to be very flexible. You can

    connect component systemstask-oriented, building block systemsin a wide

    variety of ways to suit your analysis needs.

  • CADD Centre Thiruvananthapuram | Ansys Workbench |

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    ABOUT THE PROJECT

    An airfoil (in American English) or aerofoil (in British English) is the shape of a

    wing or blade (of a propeller, rotor, or turbine) or sail as seen in cross-section.

    An airfoil-shaped body moved through a fluid produces an aerodynamic force. The

    component of this force perpendicular to the direction of motion is called lift. The

    component parallel to the direction of motion is called drag. Subsonic flight airfoils

    have a characteristic shape with a rounded leading edge, followed by a sharp

    trailing edge, often with asymmetric curvature of upper and lower surfaces. Foils

    of similar function designed with water as the working fluid are called hydrofoils.

    The lift on an airfoil is primarily the result of its angle of attack and shape. When

    oriented at a suitable angle, the airfoil deflects the oncoming air, resulting in a

    force on the airfoil in the direction opposite to the deflection. This force is known

    as aerodynamic force and can be resolved into two components: lift and drag. Most

    foil shapes require a positive angle of attack to generate lift, but cambered airfoils

    can generate lift at zero angle of attack. This "turning" of the air in the vicinity of

    the airfoil creates curved streamlines which results in lower pressure on one side

    and higher pressure on the other. This pressure difference is accompanied by a

    velocity difference, via Bernoulli's principle, so the resulting flow field about the

    airfoil has a higher average velocity on the upper surface than on the lower surface.

    The lift force can be related directly to the average top/bottom velocity difference

    without computing the pressure by using the concept of circulation and the Kutta-

    Joukowski theorem.

  • CADD Centre Thiruvananthapuram | Ansys Workbench |

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    Examples of airfoils in nature and within various vehicles. Though not strictly an airfoil, the

    dolphin flipper obeys the same principles in a different fluid medium.

    A fixed-wing aircraft's wings, horizontal, and vertical stabilizers are built with

    airfoil-shaped cross sections, as are helicopter rotor blades. Airfoils are also found

    in propellers, fans, compressors and turbines. Sails are also airfoils, and the

    underwater surfaces of sailboats, such as the centerboard and keel, are similar in

    cross-section and operate on the same principles as airfoils. Swimming and flying

    creatures and even many plants and sessile organisms employ airfoils/hydrofoils:

    common examples being bird wings, the bodies of fish, and the shape of sand

    dollars. An airfoil-shaped wing can create down force on an automobile or other

    motor vehicle, improving traction.

    Any object with an angle of attack in a moving fluid, such as a flat plate, a

    building, or the deck of a bridge, will generate an aerodynamic force (called lift)

  • CADD Centre Thiruvananthapuram | Ansys Workbench |

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    perpendicular to the flow. Airfoils are more efficient lifting shapes, able to

    generate more lift (up to a point), and to generate lift with less drag.

    A lift and drag curve obtained in wind tunnel testing is shown on the right. The

    curve represents an airfoil with a positive camber so some lift is produced at zero

    angle of attack. With increased angle of attack, lift increases in a roughly linear

    relation, called the slope of the lift curve. At about 18 degrees this airfoil stalls, and

    lift falls off quickly beyond that. The drop in lift can be explained by the action of

    the upper-surface boundary layer, which separates and greatly thickens over the

    upper surface at and past the stall angle. The thickened boundary layer's

    displacement thickness changes the airfoil's effective shape in particular it reduces

    its effective camber, which modifies the overall flow field so as to reduce the

    circulation and the lift. The thicker boundary layer also causes a large increase in

    pressure drag, so that the overall drag increases sharply near and past the stall

    point.

    Airfoil design is a major facet of aerodynamics. Various airfoils serve different

    flight regimes. Asymmetric airfoils can generate lift at zero angle of attack, while a

    symmetric airfoil may better suit frequent inverted flight as in an aerobatic

    airplane. In the region of the ailerons and near a wingtip a symmetric airfoil can be

    used to increase the range of angles of attack to avoid spinstall. Thus a large

    range of angles can be used without boundary layer separation. Subsonic airfoils

    have a round leading edge, which is naturally insensitive to the angle of attack. The

    cross section is not strictly circular, however: the radius of curvature is increased

    before the wing achieves maximum thickness to minimize the chance of boundary

    layer separation. This elongates the wing and moves the point of maximum

    thickness back from the leading edge.

  • CADD Centre Thiruvananthapuram | Ansys Workbench |

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    Supersonic airfoils are much more angular in shape and can have a very sharp

    leading edge, which is very sensitive to angle of attack. A supercritical airfoil has

    its maximum thickness close to the leading edge to have a lot of length to slowly

    shock the supersonic flow back to subsonic speeds. Generally such transonic

    airfoils and also the supersonic airfoils have a low camber to reduce drag

    divergence. Modern aircraft wings may have different airfoil sections along the

    wing span, each one optimized for the conditions in each section of the wing.

    Movable high-lift devices, flaps and sometimes slats, are fitted to airfoils on almost

    every aircraft. A trailing edge flap acts similarly to an aileron; however, it, as

    opposed to an aileron, can be retracted partially into the wing if not used.

    A laminar flow wing has a maximum thickness in the middle camber line.

    Analyzing the NavierStokes equations in the linear regime shows that a negative

    pressure gradient along the flow has the same effect as reducing the speed. So with

    the maximum camber in the middle, maintaining a laminar flow over a larger

    percentage of the wing at a higher cruising speed is possible. However, with rain or

    insects on the wing, or for jetliner speeds, this does not work. Since such a wing

    stalls more easily, this airfoil is not used on wingtips (spin-stall again).

    Schemes have been devised to define airfoils an example is the NACA system.

    Various airfoil generation systems are also used. An example of a general purpose

    airfoil that finds wide application, and predates the NACA system, is the Clark-Y.

    Today, airfoils can be designed for specific functions using inverse design

    programs such as PROFOIL, XFOIL and Aerofoil. XFOIL is an online program

    created by Mark Drela that will design and analyze subsonic isolated airfoils.

  • CADD Centre Thiruvananthapuram | Ansys Workbench |

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    FLUENT AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF NACA 4515

    AEROFOIL

    The NACA airfoils are airfoil shapes for aircraft wings developed by the National

    Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The shape of the NACA airfoils is

    described using a series of digits following the word "NACA". The parameters in

    the numerical code can be entered into equations to precisely generate the cross-

    section of the airfoil and calculate its properties.

    The NACA four-digit wing sections define the profile by:

    1. First digit describing maximum camber as percentage of the chord.

    2. Second digit describing the distance of maximum camber from the airfoil

    leading edge in tens of percent of the chord.

    3. Last two digits describing maximum thickness of the airfoil as percent of the

    chord.

    For example, the NACA 2412 airfoil has a maximum camber of 2% located 40%

    (0.4 chords) from the leading edge with a maximum thickness of 12% of the chord.

    Four-digit series airfoils by default have maximum thickness at 30% of the chord

    (0.3 chords) from the leading edge.

    The NACA 0015 airfoil is symmetrical, the 00 indicating that it has no camber.

    The 15 indicates that the airfoil has a 15% thickness to chord length ratio: it is 15%

    as thick as it is long.

  • CADD Centre Thiruvananthapuram | Ansys Workbench |

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    AIRFOIL TERMINOLOGY

    AIRFOIL NOMENCLATURE

    The various terms related to airfoils are defined below:

    The suction surface (a.k.a. upper surface) is generally associated with higher

    velocity and lower static pressure.

    The pressure surface (a.k.a. lower surface) has a comparatively higher static

    pressure than the suction surface. The pressure gradient between these two

    surfaces contributes to the lift force generated for a given airfoil.

    The geometry of the airfoil is described with a variety of terms:

    The leading edge is the point at the front of the airfoil that has maximum

    curvature (minimum radius).

    The trailing edge is defined similarly as the point of maximum curvature at

    the rear of the airfoil.

    The chord line is the straight line connecting leading and trailing edges. The

    chord length, or simply chord , is the length of the chord line. That is the

    reference dimension of the airfoil section.

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    SCOPE OF THE PROJECT and PROBLEM DEFININTION

    The Scope of this project is to design a 4515 aerofoil to work under extreme

    conditions without undergoing failure. To prove this, we need to analyze the

    aerofoil under a defined inlet velocity of 138 m/s in ANSYS FLUENT and a

    structural analysis is carried out to find whether it is structurally stable under the

    extreme conditions using ANSYS STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS. If the values

    obtained from analysis is safe hence the design can be used for practical

    application.

    In this project, I am going to analyze fluid (air) flow over the NACA 4515 Aerofoil

    and its Structural Analysis.

  • CADD Centre Thiruvananthapuram | Ansys Workbench |

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    APPROACH AND PROCEDURE

    MODELING

    The coordinate text file is imported in the design modeler and 3D curve is

    generated using the coordinates given below

    Group Point X_cord Y-cord Z-cord

    1 1 1.00000 0.00000 0

    1 2 0.99893 0.00039 0

    1 3 0.99572 0.00156 0

    1 4 0.99039 0.00349 0

    1 5 0.98296 0.00610 0

    1 6 0.97347 0.00932 0

    1 7 0.96194 0.01303 0

    1 8 0.94844 0.01716 0

    1 9 0.93301 0.02166 0

    1 10 0.91573 0.02652 0

    1 11 0.89668 0.03171 0

    1 12 0.87592 0.03717 0

    1 13 0.85355 0.04283 0

    1 14 0.82967 0.04863 0

    1 15 0.80438 0.05453 0

    1 16 0.77779 0.06048 0

    1 17 0.75000 0.06642 0

    1 18 0.72114 0.07227 0

    1 19 0.69134 0.07795 0

    1 20 0.66072 0.08341 0

    1 21 0.62941 0.08858 0

    1 22 0.59755 0.09341 0

    1 23 0.56526 0.09785 0

    1 24 0.53270 0.10185 0

    1 25 0.50000 0.10538 0

    1 26 0.46730 0.10837 0

    1 27 0.43474 0.11076 0

    1 28 0.40245 0.11248 0

    1 29 0.37059 0.11345 0

    1 30 0.33928 0.11361 0

    1 31 0.30866 0.11294 0

    1 32 0.27886 0.11141 0

    1 33 0.25000 0.10903 0

    1 34 0.22221 0.10584 0

    1 35 0.19562 0.10190 0

    1 36 0.17033 0.09726 0

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    1 37 0.14645 0.09195 0

    1 38 0.12408 0.08607 0

    1 39 0.10332 0.07970 0

    1 40 0.08427 0.07283 0

    1 41 0.06699 0.06541 0

    1 42 0.05156 0.05753 0

    1 43 0.03806 0.04937 0

    1 44 0.02653 0.04118 0

    1 45 0.01704 0.03303 0

    1 46 0.00961 0.02489 0

    1 47 0.00428 0.01654 0

    1 49 0.00107 0.00825 0

    1 50 0.00000 0.00075 0

    1 51 0.00107 -0.00566 0

    1 52 0.00428 -0.01102 0

    1 53 0.00961 -0.01590 0

    1 54 0.01704 -0.02061 0

    1 55 0.02653 -0.02502 0

    1 56 0.03806 -0.02915 0

    1 57 0.05156 -0.03281 0

    1 58 0.06699 -0.03582 0

    1 59 0.08427 -0.03817 0

    1 60 0.10332 -0.03991 0

    1 61 0.12408 -0.04106 0

    1 62 0.14645 -0.04166 0

    1 63 0.17033 -0.04177 0

    1 64 0.19562 -0.04147 0

    1 65 0.22221 -0.04078 0

    1 66 0.25000 -0.03974 0

    1 67 0.27886 -0.03845 0

    1 68 0.30866 -0.03700 0

    1 69 0.33928 -0.03547 0

    1 70 0.37059 -0.03390 0

    1 71 0.40245 -0.03229 0

    1 72 0.43474 -0.03063 0

    1 73 0.46730 -0.02891 0

    1 74 0.50000 -0.02713 0

    1 75 0.53270 -0.02529 0

    1 76 0.56526 -0.02340 0

    1 77 0.59755 -0.02149 0

    1 78 0.62941 -0.01958 0

    1 79 0.66072 -0.01772 0

    1 80 0.69134 -0.01596 0

    1 81 0.72114 -0.01430 0

    1 82 0.75000 -0.01277 0

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    1 83 0.77779 -0.01136 0

    1 84 0.80438 -0.01006 0

    1 85 0.82967 -0.00886 0

    1 86 0.85355 -0.00775 0

    1 87 0.87592 -0.00674 0

    1 88 0.89668 -0.00583 0

    1 89 0.91573 -0.00502 0

    1 90 0.93301 -0.00431 0

    1 91 0.94844 -0.00364 0

    1 92 0.96194 -0.00297 0

    1 93 0.97347 -0.00227 0

    1 94 0.98296 -0.00156 0

    1 95 0.99039 -0.00092 0

    1 96 0.99572 -0.00042 0

    1 97 0.99893 -0.00011 0

    MATERIAL PROPERTY

    Material 1 Air

    Isentropic Relative Permeability of air =1

    Material 2 Aluminum alloy

    Properties of aluminum alloy:

    Density = 2770 kg m-3

    Young's Modulus = 71x 109 Pa

    Poisson's Ratio = 0.33

    Tensile Yield Strength = 28x107 Pa

    Tensile Ultimate Strength = 31x107 Pa

    Specific Heat = 875 J kg-1 C

    -1

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    MESHING

    The Blue colour surface indicates Air Inlet

    The Red colour surface indicates Air Outlet

    The White colour body indicates the Aerofoil

    The remaining four yellow colour surfaces are symmetrical and acts as a wall

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    Fig 1

    Fig 1 shows the meshing of whole body i.e. the aerofoil and the close surface.

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    Fig 2

    Fig 2 represents the closer view of meshed Aerofoil.

    Total no. of nodes = 96477

    Total no. of elements = 543160

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    Details of meshing

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    BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

    FOR FLUENT

    The front surface is assumed as the Velocity inlet and the rear surface is assumed as the pressure outlet.

    The inlet velocity of air is defined as 138 m/s and the pressure at the exit is set as 0 Pascal.

    Number of iterations is set as 100

    FOR STATIC STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

    1. Fixed support

    The Scoping method is changed to Named selection from geometry selection.

    Fixed support is assigned to the Connection face of Wing.

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    2. Fluid Solid Interface

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    RESULTS

    FLUENT

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    Contour option is selected from the Fluent window and

    the left surface is selected from the pop up window.

    Display tab is clicked for the result.

    And the contours of static pressure are observed.

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    A plane is created with co-ordinates

    X1= 0 y1=0 z1= -5

    X2= 5 y2=0 z1= -5

    X3= 0 y1= 5 z1= -5

    And the contours of static pressure are observed.

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    A plane is created with co-ordinates

    X1= 0 y1=0 z1= -7

    X2= 5 y2=0 z1= -7

    X3= 0 y1= 5 z1= -7

    And the contours of static pressure are observed.

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    A plane is created with co-ordinates

    X1= 0 y1=0 z1= -8

    X2= 5 y2=0 z1= -8

    X3= 0 y1= 5 z1= -8

    And the contours of static pressure are observed.

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    Isometric View of the Aerofoil.

    The contours of static pressure are observed.

    The static pressure has low values as it extends from left to

    right from the top surface of the aerofoil.

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    Isometric View 2 of the Aerofoil.

    The contours of static pressure are observed.

    The static pressure has maximum value at the bottom

    surface of the aerofoil.

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    Vectors option is selected from the Fluent window and the

    left surface is selected from the pop up window. Display

    tab is clicked for the result.

    And the velocity vectors colored by Velocity magnitude

    (m/s) are observed.

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    A plane is created with co-ordinates

    X1= 0 y1=0 z1= -5

    X2= 5 y2=0 z1= -5

    X3= 0 y1= 5 z1= -5

    And the velocity vectors colored by Velocity magnitude in

    m/s are observed.

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    A plane is created with co-ordinates

    X1= 0 y1=0 z1= -7

    X2= 5 y2=0 z1= -7

    X3= 0 y1= 5 z1= -7

    And the velocity vectors colored by Velocity magnitude in

    m/s are observed.

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    STRUCTURAL First Saved Monday, October 13, 2014

    Last Saved Monday, October 13, 2014

    Product Version 14.0 Release

    Save Project Before Solution No

    Save Project After Solution No

    TABLE 1

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    Unit System Metric (m, kg, N, s, V, A) Degrees rad/s Celsius

    Angle Degrees

    Rotational Velocity rad/s

    Temperature Celsius

    Model (C4)

    Geometry

    TABLE 2 Model (C4) > Geometry

    Object Name Geometry

    State Fully Defined

    Definition

    Source E:\ANSYS WORKBENCH\Nithin Devasia\ANSYS Project\CFD and Structural

    Analysis of NACA 4415 Aerofoil_files\dp0\Geom\DM\Geom.agdb

    Type DesignModeler

    Length Unit Millimeters

    Element Control Program Controlled

    Display Style Body Color

    Bounding Box

    Length X 17.324 m

    Length Y 8.5843 m

    Length Z 10. m

    Properties

    Volume 0.12124 m

    Mass 335.83 kg

    Scale Factor Value 1.

    Statistics

    Bodies 2

    Active Bodies 1

    Nodes 76553

    Elements 39122

    Mesh Metric None

    Basic Geometry Options

    Parameters Yes

    Parameter Key DS

    Attributes No

    Named Selections No

    Material Properties No

    Advanced Geometry Options

    Use Associativity Yes

    Coordinate Systems No

    Reader Mode Saves Updated File

    No

    Use Instances Yes

    Smart CAD Update No

    Attach File Via Temp File

    Yes

    Temporary Directory C:\Users\SDA\AppData\Roaming\Ansys\v140

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    Analysis Type 3-D

    Decompose Disjoint Faces

    Yes

    Enclosure and Symmetry

    Processing Yes

    TABLE 3 Model (C4) > Geometry > Parts

    Object Name WING AIR

    State Meshed Suppressed

    Graphics Properties

    Visible Yes No

    Transparency 1

    Definition

    Suppressed No Yes

    Stiffness Behavior Flexible

    Coordinate System Default Coordinate System

    Reference Temperature By Environment

    Material

    Assignment Aluminum Alloy Structural Steel

    Nonlinear Effects Yes

    Thermal Strain Effects Yes

    Bounding Box

    Length X 1.8088 m 17.324 m

    Length Y 0.34196 m 8.5843 m

    Length Z 7. m 10. m

    Properties

    Volume 0.12124 m 1484.7 m

    Mass 335.83 kg 1.1655e+007 kg

    Centroid X 0.84176 m 0.32265 m

    Centroid Y -2.9072e-002 m 0.4867 m

    Centroid Z -3.4821 m -5.0024 m

    Moment of Inertia Ip1 1686.2 kgm 1.6885e+008 kgm

    Moment of Inertia Ip2 1782.8 kgm 3.8912e+008 kgm

    Moment of Inertia Ip3 103.51 kgm 3.6364e+008 kgm

    Statistics

    Nodes 76553 0

    Elements 39122 0

    Mesh Metric None

    Coordinate Systems

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    TABLE 4 Model (C4) > Coordinate Systems > Coordinate System

    Object Name Global Coordinate System

    State Fully Defined

    Definition

    Type Cartesian

    Coordinate System ID 0.

    Origin

    Origin X 0. m

    Origin Y 0. m

    Origin Z 0. m

    Directional Vectors

    X Axis Data [ 1. 0. 0. ]

    Y Axis Data [ 0. 1. 0. ]

    Z Axis Data [ 0. 0. 1. ]

    Connections

    TABLE 5 Model (C4) > Connections

    Object Name Connections

    State Fully Defined

    Auto Detection

    Generate Automatic Connection On Refresh Yes

    Transparency

    Enabled Yes

    TABLE 6 Model (C4) > Connections > Contacts

    Object Name Contacts

    State Suppressed

    Definition

    Connection Type Contact

    Scope

    Scoping Method Geometry Selection

    Geometry All Bodies

    Auto Detection

    Tolerance Type Slider

    Tolerance Slider 0.

    Tolerance Value 5.4418e-002 m

    Use Range No

    Face/Face Yes

    Face/Edge No

    Edge/Edge No

    Priority Include All

    Group By Bodies

    Search Across Bodies

    TABLE 7 Model (C4) > Connections > Contacts > Contact Regions

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    Object Name Contact Region

    State Suppressed

    Scope

    Scoping Method Geometry Selection

    Contact 5 Faces

    Target No Selection

    Contact Bodies WING

    Target Bodies AIR

    Definition

    Type Bonded

    Scope Mode Automatic

    Behavior Program Controlled

    Suppressed No

    Advanced

    Formulation Program Controlled

    Detection Method Program Controlled

    Normal Stiffness Program Controlled

    Update Stiffness Program Controlled

    Pinball Region Program Controlled

    Mesh

    TABLE 8 Model (C4) > Mesh

    Object Name Mesh

    State Solved

    Defaults

    Physics Preference Mechanical

    Relevance 0

    Sizing

    Use Advanced Size Function Off

    Relevance Center Coarse

    Element Size Default

    Initial Size Seed Active Assembly

    Smoothing Medium

    Transition Fast

    Span Angle Center Coarse

    Minimum Edge Length 5.e-003 m

    Inflation

    Use Automatic Inflation None

    Inflation Option Smooth Transition

    Transition Ratio 0.272

    Maximum Layers 5

    Growth Rate 1.2

    Inflation Algorithm Pre

    View Advanced Options No

    Patch Conforming Options

    Triangle Surface Mesher Program Controlled

    Advanced

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    Shape Checking Standard Mechanical

    Element Midside Nodes Program Controlled

    Straight Sided Elements No

    Number of Retries Default (4)

    Extra Retries For Assembly Yes

    Rigid Body Behavior Dimensionally Reduced

    Mesh Morphing Disabled

    Defeaturing

    Pinch Tolerance Please Define

    Generate Pinch on Refresh No

    Automatic Mesh Based Defeaturing On

    Defeaturing Tolerance Default

    Statistics

    Nodes 76553

    Elements 39122

    Mesh Metric None

    Named Selections

    TABLE 9 Model (C4) > Named Selections > Named Selections

    Object Name ConnectionFaceofWing WingPeripherals Aircontcatsurafce AirInlet AirOutlet

    State Fully Defined Suppressed

    Scope

    Scoping Method Geometry Selection

    Geometry 1 Face 3 Faces No Selection

    Definition

    Send to Solver Yes

    Visible Yes

    Program Controlled Inflation

    Exclude

    Statistics

    Type Imported

    Total Selection 1 Face 3 Faces 1 Face

    Suppressed 0 3 1

    Used by Mesh Worksheet No

    TABLE 10 Model (C4) > Named Selections > Named Selections

    Object Name LeftSurface Toprightbottomsurfaces

    State Suppressed

    Scope

    Scoping Method Geometry Selection

    Geometry No Selection

    Definition

    Send to Solver Yes

    Visible Yes

    Program Controlled Inflation Exclude

    Statistics

    Type Imported

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    Total Selection 1 Face 3 Faces

    Suppressed 1 3

    Used by Mesh Worksheet No

    Static Structural (C5)

    TABLE 11 Model (C4) > Analysis

    Object Name Static Structural (C5)

    State Solved

    Definition

    Physics Type Structural

    Analysis Type Static Structural

    Solver Target Mechanical APDL

    Options

    Environment Temperature 22. C

    Generate Input Only No

    TABLE 12 Model (C4) > Static Structural (C5) > Analysis Settings

    Object Name Analysis Settings

    State Fully Defined

    Restart Analysis

    Restart Type Program Controlled

    Status Done

    Step Controls

    Number Of Steps 1.

    Current Step Number 1.

    Step End Time 1. s

    Auto Time Stepping Program Controlled

    Solver Controls

    Solver Type Program Controlled

    Weak Springs Program Controlled

    Large Deflection Off

    Inertia Relief Off

    Restart Controls

    Generate Restart Points

    Program Controlled

    Retain Files After Full Solve

    Yes

    Nonlinear Controls

    Force Convergence Program Controlled

    Moment Convergence

    Program Controlled

    Displacement Convergence

    Program Controlled

    Rotation Convergence

    Program Controlled

    Line Search Program Controlled

    Stabilization Off

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    Output Controls

    Stress Yes

    Strain Yes

    Nodal Forces No

    Contact Miscellaneous

    No

    General Miscellaneous

    No

    Calculate Results At All Time Points

    Max Number of Result Sets

    Program Controlled

    Analysis Data Management

    Solver Files Directory E:\ANSYS WORKBENCH\Nithin Devasia\ANSYS Project\CFD and Structural

    Analysis of NACA 4415 Aerofoil_files\dp0\SYS\MECH\

    Future Analysis None

    Scratch Solver Files Directory

    Save MAPDL db No

    Delete Unneeded Files

    Yes

    Nonlinear Solution No

    Solver Units Active System

    Solver Unit System mks

    TABLE 13 Model (C4) > Static Structural (C5) > Loads

    Object Name Fixed Support Fluid Solid Interface

    State Fully Defined

    Scope

    Scoping Method Named Selection

    Named Selection ConnectionFaceofWing WingPeripherals

    Definition

    Type Fixed Support Fluid Solid Interface

    Suppressed No

    Interface Number 1.

    Solution (C6)

    TABLE 14 Model (C4) > Static Structural (C5) > Solution

    Object Name Solution (C6)

    State Solved

    Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    Max Refinement Loops 1.

    Refinement Depth 2.

    Information

    Status Done

    TABLE 15

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    Model (C4) > Static Structural (C5) > Solution (C6) > Solution Information

    Object Name Solution Information

    State Solved

    Solution Information

    Solution Output Solver Output

    Newton-Raphson Residuals 0

    Update Interval 2.5 s

    Display Points All

    FE Connection Visibility

    Activate Visibility Yes

    Display All FE Connectors

    Draw Connections Attached To All Nodes

    Line Color Connection Type

    Visible on Results No

    Line Thickness Single

    Display Type Lines

    TABLE 16 Model (C4) > Static Structural (C5) > Solution (C6) > Results

    Object Name Equivalent Stress Maximum Principal

    Stress Minimum Principal

    Stress Total

    Deformation

    State Solved

    Scope

    Scoping Method Geometry Selection

    Geometry 1 Face All Bodies

    Definition

    Type Equivalent (von-Mises)

    Stress Maximum Principal

    Stress Minimum Principal

    Stress Total

    Deformation

    By Time

    Display Time Last

    Calculate Time History

    Yes

    Identifier

    Suppressed No

    Integration Point Results

    Display Option Averaged

    Results

    Minimum 31980 Pa -7.1972e+007 Pa -3.9676e+008 Pa 0. m

    Maximum 2.6611e+008 Pa 4.2613e+008 Pa 1.2876e+008 Pa 0.41933 m

    Information

    Time 1. s

    Load Step 1

    Substep 1

    Iteration Number 5

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    FIGURE 1 Model (C4) > Static Structural (C5) > Solution (C6) > Equivalent Stress > Image

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    FIGURE 2 Model (C4) > Static Structural (C5) > Solution (C6) > Maximum Principal Stress > Image

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    FIGURE 3 Model (C4) > Static Structural (C5) > Solution (C6) > Minimum Principal Stress > Image

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    FIGURE 4

    Model (C4) > Static Structural (C5) > Solution (C6) > Total Deformation > Image

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    TABLE 17

    Model (C4) > Static Structural (C5) > Solution (C6) > Probes

    Object Name Force Reaction Moment Reaction

    State Solved

    Definition

    Type Force Reaction Moment Reaction

    Location Method Boundary Condition

    Boundary Condition Fixed Support

    Orientation Global Coordinate System

    Suppressed No

    Summation Centroid

    Options

    Result Selection All

    Display Time End Time

    Results

    X Axis -4909.8 N -4.1227e+005 Nm

    Y Axis -1.2853e+005 N 19599 Nm

    Z Axis 1530.7 N 19913 Nm

    Total 1.2863e+005 N 4.1322e+005 Nm

    Maximum Value Over Time

    X Axis -4909.8 N -4.1227e+005 Nm

    Y Axis -1.2853e+005 N 19599 Nm

    Z Axis 1530.7 N 19913 Nm

    Total 1.2863e+005 N 4.1322e+005 Nm

    Minimum Value Over Time

    X Axis -4909.8 N -4.1227e+005 Nm

    Y Axis -1.2853e+005 N 19599 Nm

    Z Axis 1530.7 N 19913 Nm

    Total 1.2863e+005 N 4.1322e+005 Nm

    Information

    Time 1. s

    Load Step 1

    Substep 1

    Iteration Number 5

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    FIGURE 5

    Model (C4) > Static Structural (C5) > Solution (C6) > Force Reaction > Image

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    FIGURE 6

    Model (C4) > Static Structural (C5) > Solution (C6) > Moment Reaction > Image

    Material Data

    Aluminum Alloy

    TABLE 18 Aluminum Alloy > Constants

    Density 2770 kg m^-3

    Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 2.3e-005 C^-1

    Specific Heat 875 J kg^-1 C^-1

    TABLE 19 Aluminum Alloy > Compressive Ultimate Strength

    Compressive Ultimate Strength Pa

    0

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    TABLE 20 Aluminum Alloy > Compressive Yield Strength

    Compressive Yield Strength Pa

    2.8e+008

    TABLE 21 Aluminum Alloy > Tensile Yield Strength

    Tensile Yield Strength Pa

    2.8e+008

    TABLE 22 Aluminum Alloy > Tensile Ultimate Strength

    Tensile Ultimate Strength Pa

    3.1e+008

    TABLE 23 Aluminum Alloy > Isotropic Secant Coefficient of Thermal Expansion

    Reference Temperature C

    22

    TABLE 24 Aluminum Alloy > Isotropic Thermal Conductivity

    Thermal Conductivity W m^-1 C^-1 Temperature C

    114 -100

    144 0

    165 100

    175 200

    TABLE 25 Aluminum Alloy > Alternating Stress R-Ratio

    Alternating Stress Pa Cycles R-Ratio

    2.758e+008 1700 -1

    2.413e+008 5000 -1

    2.068e+008 34000 -1

    1.724e+008 1.4e+005 -1

    1.379e+008 8.e+005 -1

    1.172e+008 2.4e+006 -1

    8.963e+007 5.5e+007 -1

    8.274e+007 1.e+008 -1

    1.706e+008 50000 -0.5

    1.396e+008 3.5e+005 -0.5

    1.086e+008 3.7e+006 -0.5

    8.791e+007 1.4e+007 -0.5

    7.757e+007 5.e+007 -0.5

    7.239e+007 1.e+008 -0.5

    1.448e+008 50000 0

    1.207e+008 1.9e+005 0

    1.034e+008 1.3e+006 0

    9.308e+007 4.4e+006 0

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    8.618e+007 1.2e+007 0

    7.239e+007 1.e+008 0

    7.412e+007 3.e+005 0.5

    7.067e+007 1.5e+006 0.5

    6.636e+007 1.2e+007 0.5

    6.205e+007 1.e+008 0.5

    TABLE 26 Aluminum Alloy > Isotropic Resistivity

    Resistivity ohm m Temperature C

    2.43e-008 0

    2.67e-008 20

    3.63e-008 100

    TABLE 27 Aluminum Alloy > Isotropic Elasticity

    Temperature C Young's Modulus Pa Poisson's Ratio Bulk Modulus Pa Shear Modulus Pa

    7.1e+010 0.33 6.9608e+010 2.6692e+010

    TABLE 28 Aluminum Alloy > Isotropic Relative Permeability

    Relative Permeability

    1

    Structural Steel

    TABLE 29 Structural Steel > Constants

    Density 7850 kg m^-3

    Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 1.2e-005 C^-1

    Specific Heat 434 J kg^-1 C^-1

    Thermal Conductivity 60.5 W m^-1 C^-1

    Resistivity 1.7e-007 ohm m

    TABLE 30 Structural Steel > Compressive Ultimate Strength

    Compressive Ultimate Strength Pa

    0

    TABLE 31 Structural Steel > Compressive Yield Strength

    Compressive Yield Strength Pa

    2.5e+008

    TABLE 32 Structural Steel > Tensile Yield Strength

    Tensile Yield Strength Pa

    2.5e+008

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    TABLE 33 Structural Steel > Tensile Ultimate Strength

    Tensile Ultimate Strength Pa

    4.6e+008

    TABLE 34 Structural Steel > Isotropic Secant Coefficient of Thermal Expansion

    Reference Temperature C

    22

    TABLE 35 Structural Steel > Alternating Stress Mean Stress

    Alternating Stress Pa Cycles Mean Stress Pa

    3.999e+009 10 0

    2.827e+009 20 0

    1.896e+009 50 0

    1.413e+009 100 0

    1.069e+009 200 0

    4.41e+008 2000 0

    2.62e+008 10000 0

    2.14e+008 20000 0

    1.38e+008 1.e+005 0

    1.14e+008 2.e+005 0

    8.62e+007 1.e+006 0

    TABLE 36 Structural Steel > Strain-Life Parameters

    Strength Coefficient Pa

    Strength Exponent

    Ductility Coefficient

    Ductility Exponent

    Cyclic Strength Coefficient Pa

    Cyclic Strain Hardening Exponent

    9.2e+008 -0.106 0.213 -0.47 1.e+009 0.2

    TABLE 37 Structural Steel > Isotropic Elasticity

    Temperature C Young's Modulus Pa Poisson's Ratio Bulk Modulus Pa Shear Modulus Pa

    2.e+011 0.3 1.6667e+011 7.6923e+010

    TABLE 38

    Structural Steel > Isotropic Relative Permeability

    Relative Permeability

    10000

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    INFERENCE

    From the Fluid flow analysis it is observed that the maximum value of static

    pressure which is exerted by the air on the surface of the aerofoil is 12600 Pascal

    and the maximum magnitude of velocity of air leaving from the surface of aerofoil

    is found to be 235 m/s. So according to the protocols of National Advisory

    Committee for Aeronautics, the value of Static pressure and Magnitude of velocity

    are under the permissible limits and hence the design is fluid dynamically safe,

    hence for finding out the structural stability of the design, a static structural

    analysis coupled with Workbench system coupling is conducted and the values of

    Equivalent stress, Maximum and Minimum Principal Stress, Total deformation,

    Force and Moment reactions are obtained.

    The maximum value of Von misses stress is found out to be 266.11 MPa,

    Maximum principal stress is 426.13 MPa, Minimum principal stress is 128.76 MPa

    and Maximum deformation is 419.33 mm.

    The above obtained values are within the desired limits according to National

    Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), hence the design is structurally

    safe.

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    SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSIONS

    The fluid flow and structural analysis can be carried out for a different value of the

    inlet air velocity and the angle of attack and camber angle may be changed in order

    to get different result.

    Fluid flow and Structural analysis of NACA 4515 Aerofoil is carried out with

    Ansys Workbench and the required results are obtained. The results are found

    successful and the aerofoil can be used for practical application.

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    REFERENCE

    NACA Aerofoil Wikipedia

    Aerofoil Wikipedia

    Ansys Workbench Reference guide

    Ansys Design Exploration Ansys Inc.

    NACA 4 digit profile generator