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  • Strontium isotopes and sedimentology of a marine Triassic succession (upper Ladinian) of the westernmost Tethys, Spain

    Y. Snchez-Moya1,2*, M.J. Herrero3, A. Sopea2

    1Departamento de Estratigrafa. Facultad de Ciencias Geolgicas. Universidad Complutense. 28040 Madrid (Spain).2Instituto de Geociencias, CSIC-UCM. Jos Antonio Novis, 12. 28040 Madrid (Spain) .

    3Departamento de Petrologa y Geoqumica. UCM. Facultad de Ciencias Geolgicas. Universidad Complutense. 28040 Madrid (Spain.

    e-mail addresses: yol@ucm.es (Y.S.-M., *Corresponding author); mjherrer@ucm.es (M.J.H.); sopena@ucm.es (A.S.)

    Received: 11 January 2016 / Accepted: 28 July 2016 / Available online: 10 August 2016

    Abstract

    Chemical Stratigraphy, or the study of the variation of chemical elements within sedimentary sequences, has gradually become an expe-rienced tool in the research and correlation of global geologic events. In this paper 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios of the Triassic marine carbonates (Mus-chelkalk facies) of southeast Iberian Ranges, Iberian Peninsula, are presented and the representative Sr-isotopic curve constructed for the upper Ladinian interval. The studied stratigraphic succession is 102 meters thick, continuous, and well preserved. Previous paleontological data from macro and micro, ammonites, bivalves, foraminifera, conodonts and palynological assemblages, suggest a Fassanian-Longobar-dian age (Late Ladinian). Although diagenetic minerals are present in small amounts, the elemental data content of bulk carbonate samples, especially Sr contents, show a major variation that probably reflects palaeoenvironmental changes. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios curve shows a rise from 0.707649 near the base of the section to 0.707741 and then declines rapidly to 0.707624, with a final values rise up to 0.70787 in the upper part. The data up to meter 80 in the studied succession is broadly concurrent with 87Sr/86Sr ratios of sequences of similar age and complements these data. Moreover, the sequence stratigraphic framework and its key surfaces, which are difficult to be recognised just based in the facies analysis, are characterised by combining variations of the Ca, Mg, Mn, Sr and CaCO3 contents

    Keywords: Strontium isotope, Chemostratigraphy, Muschelkalk, Middle Triassic, Iberian Ranges

    ResumenLa Quimioestratigrafa o el estudio de la distribucin geoqumica de los elementos y sus variaciones en las secuencias sedimentarias, se

    ha convertido en una herramienta de inters para la investigacin y correlacin de eventos geolgicos globales. En este trabajo, se analizan los valores de la relacin isotpica 87Sr/86Sr de los carbonatos marinos en facies Muschelkalk del Trisico del sureste de la Cordillera Ibrica que han sido atribuidos al Ladiniense superior. La sucesin tiene un espesor de 102 m, es continua y est muy bien preservada. Los datos paleontolgicos de estudios previos basados en macrofauna de ammonites y bivalvos, y en microfauna de foraminferos, conodontos y aso-ciaciones palinolgicas, sugieren un intervalo de tiempo Fassaniensen-Longobardiense. El anlisis detallado de la petrologa y geoqumica de los carbonatos, demuestra que la mayor parte de la sucesin no ha sufrido una diagnesis intensa. La variacin vertical de las relaciones isotpicas del contendido en Sr indica un cambio paleoambiental significativo en las caractersticas qumicas del mar trisico del Tetis para este sector. La relacin 87Sr/86Sr es de 0.707649 en la base de la seccin, aumenta ligeramente en sentido vertical hasta valores de 0,707741 para disminuir rpidamente a 0,707624. En el techo de la serie las cantidades aumentan de nuevo hasta 0,70787. Los valores obtenidos de la relacin 87Sr/86Sr en los primeros 80 metros de la sucesin, coinciden con las relaciones obtenidas en secuencias de la misma edad en otros mbitos del mar del Tetis. La combinacin de las variaciones de elementos traza de Ca, Mg, Mn y Sr y del contenido total CaCO3 ha permitido adems, caracterizar geoqumica y mineralgicamente el anlisis secuencial y el reconocimiento de las superficies que limitan las secuencias deposicionales para la regin estudiada.

    Palabras clave: Istopos de estroncio, Quimioestratigrafia, Muschelkalk, Trisico medio, Cordillera Ibrica

    Journal of Iberian Geology 42 (2) 2016: 171-186http://dx.doi.org/10.5209/rev_JIGE.2016.v42.n2.51642

    www.ucm.es /info/estratig/journal.htmISSN (print): 1698-6180. ISSN (online): 1886-7995

  • 172 Snchez-Moya et al. / Journal of Iberian Geology 42 (2) 2016: 171-186

    1. Introduction

    Chemical stratigraphy, the study of elemental composition and isotopic ratios within sedimentary sequences, has become a useful tool in the research and correlation of global geologi-cal events, although higher resolution datasets are needed to construct the best curves of the evolution of isotope ratios and elements of particular interest to correlations. This article includes a study of 87Sr/86Sr ratios, trace elements and miner-alogies of bulk carbonate samples. Despite the fact that the 87Sr/86Sr trend has potential for dating and correlating rocks, only one study has used strontium isotopes in northern Spain (Sopea et al., 2009) trying to date a Triassic succession. The strong diagenetic transformations, essentially dolomiti-zation, that affect most of the marine carbonates comprising the Triassic sequences of the Iberian Peninsula are the main reason for the lack of studies dating the succession based on 87Sr/86Sr ratios. Nevertheless, there are some outcrops where the composition of most of the stratigraphic succession con-sists of limestones and dolostones where it is possible to de-velop a Sr-isotope stratigraphy with adequate assurance that the original isotopic signal has been preserved. This study presents data from the Muschelkalk in the SE of Spain, in the Alpera-Montealegre del Castillo region (Fig. 1), where the marine carbonates are considered to preserve their original geochemical signal and the 87Sr/86Sr ratio permits dating, es-tablish correlations, determine facies relationships and make palaeoenvironmental reconstructions.

    Seawater chemistry has varied with global climate through-out Earths history, with ion ratios such as Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca useful for determining paleo-ocean conditions (Cohen et al., 2002). Their variations in seawater are related to carbonate sedimentation and represent the main factor involved in the

    regulation of the mineralogical nature of inorganic CaCO3 (MacKenzie and Pigott, 1981; Wilkinson and Given, 1986), and they are as well of great influence to the marine biota and the distribution of carbonate sediments (Lowenstein et al., 2001). Variations in the Mn supply during sedimentation has been used as an indication of continental or hydrothermal origin of the materials, as well as being indicative of oxygen contents, where reducing environments lead to formation of Mn-poor carbonates, whereas oxidizing environments lead to formation of Mn-rich sediments (Renard, 1985). In a similar way, strontium isotopic composition of ancient seawater has served as a proxy for understanding the tectonic evolution of the Earth system as well as a tool for stratigraphic correla-tion (Korte et al., 2003). The 87Sr/86Sr signature of seawater reflects fluctuations in the relative importance of strontium fluxes and their isotope ratios into the ocean (Burke et al., 1982; Veizer et al., 1999). These are 1) the riverine input of radiogenic Sr due to continental silicate weathering and 2) the mantle Sr from hydrothermal circulation at mid-ocean ridges (Faure, 1986), likely coincident with the second-or-der sea level fluctuations (Gaffin, 1987). There are as well Sr fluxes from groundwater and from carbonate diagenesis (Veizer, 1989). Uplift phases are coincident with falling sea levels, exposing large areas and the subsequent erosion a gen-esis of detrital material.

    This study focuses on the analysis of a Triassic succession located in the southern part of the Iberian Range. From the Middle Permian to Early Triassic, the Iberian Plate was near the western margin of the Tethys Sea, which was located close to the intertropical convergence zone (Stampfli and Borel, 2002). A complex system of rift basins developed in Central and Western Europe, produced by the extensional collapse of the Variscan Belt and the westward advance of the Neotethys

    Madrid

    0 544

    40

    44

    36

    -5

    -5

    -10

    -10

    Lisbon

    LEGEND

    SYMBOLS

    Tertiary and Quaternary

    Triassic

    Muschelkalk facies

    Keuper facies

    Volcanic rocks

    Atlantic O

    cean

    Medite

    rranean S

    ea

    Casa de lospinos

    Madrid

    Alicante

    Rambla del

    Cuchillo Alto

    Rambla de losCuchillosS

    S

    M

    K2Q

    Q

    K3

    K1

    K1

    866 m

    Q

    MTramacastilla andRoyuela Formations

    K1 Jarafuel Formation

    K2 Manuel Formation

    K3 Cofrentes Formation

    Syncline

    Reverse fault

    Normal fault

    Anticline

    Rambla delCuchillo section

    0 200 Km

    N

    N

    0 1 Km

    A-31

    Fig. 1.- Geologic setting and location of the Rambla del Cuchillo section. The outcrop corresponds to the Triassic of Alpera-Montealegre del Castillo region. Section coordinates: 38 52 07.38 N/1 15 14.86 W

  • 173Snchez-Moya et al. / Journal of Iberian Geology 42 (2) 2016: 171-186

    2. Materials and methods

    The characteristics of the outcrop permit a very detailed study of the main vertical facies successions and determine the environments of deposition. For the geochemical char-acterisation of samples, calcite mudstones and wackestones have been chosen as they are considered to retain more ac-curately their original isotopic composition due to their lower permeability character in comparison to associated grain-supported roc