Tiểu luận Xử lý chất thải nguy hại

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MC LC M U Phn 11.1. 1.2.

TNG QUAN V X L SINH HC CHT THI NGUY HI Cht thi nguy hi Qun l cht thi nguy hi ti Vit Nam X l sinh hc cht thi nguy hi

1.3.

Phn 2 NG DNG K THUT PHN T X L SINH H CHT THI NGUY HI 2.1. Vi sinh vt v k thut phn t ng dng trong s l sinh hc cht thi nguy hi 2.2. Tim nng s dng cc phng php sinh thi hc vi sinh vt mc phn t x l sinh hc cht thi nguy hi Phn 3 KT LUN TAI LIU THAM KHO

M U

Cng ngh sinh hc c th c nh ngha l ng dng nguyn l k thut v khoa hc trong vic x l cc vt liu bng tc nhn sinh hc cung cp sn phm v phc v. (Cator,2000). Trong lch s, cng ngh sinh hc u tin s dng nm men ln men bia, ru, vuwr dng vi khun to sa chua. Nm 1972, l nm sinh ra cng ngh DNA ti t hp a cng ngh sinh hc ti mt tm cao mi v hnh thnh mt nn cng nghip mi. s tin b trong cng ngh sinh hc thc s c ghi nhn. Trong vng 4 nm khm ph ra k thut DNA ti t hp, cc vi sinh vt chuyn gen (GMOs) to ra insulin ngui, interferon, v hocmon sinh trng ngi. Ngy nay, cng ngh DNA ti t hp v cc sn phm ca n nh GMOs c ng dng rng ri trong cng ngh sinh hc mi trung (Glick v Pasternark,1988; Cowan,2000). X l sinh hc cht thi nguy hi l mt trong nhng lnh vc pht trin mnh nht trong cng ngh sinh hc mi trng. S dng x l sinh hc cht thi nguy hi lm sch mi trng rt c ph bin nh chi ph thp v c con ngi chp nhn. Thc s, x l sinh hc cht thi nguy hi t hiu qu cao, nhanh hn na khi c h tr bi k thut phn t vn c pht trin trong nhiu lnh vc khc nhau trong cng ngh sinh hc. Nhng nm 1990 l thp k cho sinh thi vi sinh vt phn t pht trin. Vic p dng k thut phn t gip cc nh khoa hc nhn ra rng cng ng vi sinh vt trong mi trng t nhin c th phc v tt hn nhiu cc phng php nui cy truyn thng. S dng cc phng php sinh thi hc phn t, nh tch chit DNA trc tip t mu mi trng, in di gel gradient bin tnh (DGGE), phng php PCR, phng php lai phn t, chng ta c th nghin cu qun th vi sinh vt c kh nng phn hy cht thi trong mi trng. Nhng phng php ny ha hn s hiu bit iu khin tt hn cc qu trnh cng ngh sinh hc mi trng, nh cho php vic x l sinh hc mi trng b nhim v cc cht thi c hiu qu v t tn km hn.

Phn 11.1.

TNG QUAN V X L SINH HC CHT THI NGUY HI

Cht thi nguy hi

1.1.1.nh ngha - Theo UNEP Cht thi c hi l nhng cht thi (khng k cht thi phng x) c hot tnh ha hc, hoc c tnh c hi, chy n, n mn gy nguy him hoc c th gy nguy him n sc khe hoc mi trng khi hnh thnh hoc tip xc vi cc cht thi khc. Cht thi khng bao gm trong nh ngha trn: + Cht thi phng x c xem l cht thi c hi nhng khng bao gm trong nh ngha ny bi v hu ht cc quc gia qun l v kim sot cht phng x theo qui c, iu khon, qui nh ring. + Cht thi rn sinh hot c th gy nhim mi trng do cha mt t cht thi nguy hi tuy nhin n c qun l theo h thng cht thi ring. mt s quc gia s dng thu gom tch ring cht thi nguy hi trong rc sinh hot. - Theo Lut bo v mi trng CTNH l cht thi cha yu t c hi, phng x, d chy, d n, d n mn, d ly nhim, gy ng c hoc c tnh nguy hi khc (khon 11, iu 3, chng 1 Lut Bo V Mi Trng). QLCTNH gm cc hot ng lin quan n vic phng nga, gim thiu, phn loi, thu gom, vn chuyn, lu gi, x l (k c ti ch, thu hi), tiu hu CTNH (khon 1, iu 2, chng 1 Thng T 12/2006/TT-BTNMT). 1.1.2.c tnh ca cht thi nguy hi - Cht c kh nng gy chy: cht c nhit bt chy 12,5; cht c th n mn thp. Dng thng gp l nhng cht c tnh axit hoc bazo - Cht c tnh c hi: Nhng cht thi m bn thn n c tnh c c th c xc nh qua cc bc kim tra. Cht thi c phn tch thnh phn trong cc

pha hi, rn v lng. Khi c thnh phn ha hc no ln hn tiu chun cho php th cht thi c xp vo loi cht thi nguy hi. Cht c hi gm: Cc kim loi nng nh thy ngn, cadmium, asenic, ch v cc mui ca chng; dung mi hu c nh toluen, benzen, axeton, cloroform; Cc cht c hot tnh sinh hc (thuc st trng, tr su, ha cht nng nghip); Cc cht hu c rt bn trong iu kin t nhin nu tch ly trong m m n mt nng nht nh th s gy bnh (PCBs: Poly Chlorinated Biphenyls). - Cht c kh nng gy ung th v t bin gen: Dioxin (PCDD), Asen, cadmium, benzen, cc hp cht hu c cha clo 1.1.3.Ngun gc pht sinh cht thi nguy hi Theo khong 2, Quyt nh s 23/2006/Q-BTNMT, ngy 26/12/2006, Cht thi nguy hi pht sinh t 19 nhm: 1) Cht thi t ngnh thm d, khai thc, ch bin khong sn, du kh v than. 2) Cht thi t ngnh sn xut ho cht v c. 3) Cht thi t ngnh sn xut ho cht hu c. 4) Cht thi t ngnh nhit in v cc qu trnh nhit khc. 5) Cht thi t ngnh luyn kim. 6) Cht thi t ngnh sn xut vt liu xy dng v thu tinh. 7) Cht thi t qu trnh x l, che ph b mt, to hnh kim loi v cc vt liu khc. 8) Cht thi t qu trnh sn xut, iu ch, cung ng, s dng cc sn phm che ph (sn, vc ni, men thu tinh), cht kt dnh, cht bt kn v mc in. 9) Cht thi t ngnh ch bin g, sn xut cc sn phm g, giy v bt giy. 10)Cht thi t ngnh ch bin da, lng v dt nhum. 11) Cht thi xy dng v ph d (k c t o t cc khu vc b nhim). 12) Cht thi t cc c s ti ch, x l, tiu hu cht thi, x l nc cp sinh hot v cng nghip. 13) Cht thi t ngnh y t v th y (tr cht thi sinh hot t ngnh ny). 14) Cht thi t ngnh nng nghip, lm nghip v thu sn. 15) Thit b, phng tin giao thng vn ti ht hn s dng v cht thi t hot ng ph d, bo dng thit b, phng tin giao thng vn ti. 16) Cht thi h gia nh v cht thi sinh hot t cc ngun khc. 17) Du thi, cht thi t nhin liu lng, cht thi dung mi hu c, mi cht lnh v cht y (propellant). 18) Cc loi cht thi bao b, cht hp th, gi lau, vt liu lc v vi bo v. 19) Cc loi cht thi khc. 1.1.4.Phn loi Trn thc t, c nhiu h thng phn loi cht thi nguy hi. H thng phn loi theo tiu chun Vit Nam phn loi theo cc c tnh ca cht thi, TCVN 6706:2009 chia CTNH thnh 7 nhm sau:

Bng 1: H thng phn loi CTNH theo TCVN 6706:2009 M s TT Nhm loi M t tnh cht nguy hi BASEL 1 Cht thi d bt la, d chy (C)

1.1 H 3

Cht thi lng d chy

Cht thi lng c nhit bt chy di 60oC Cht thi khng l cht lng, d bc chy khi b ma st trong iu kin vn chuyn, khi b m, b t th xy ra t phn ng v bc chy, chy nhit v p sut kh quyn. Cht thi c kh nng t bc chy do t nng ln trong iu kin vn chuyn bnh thng, hoc t nng ln do tip xc vi khng kh v c kh nng bc chy. Cht thi khi gp nc, to ra phn ng gii phng kh d chy hoc kh t chy. Cht thi (bng phn ng ha hc) gy ra s n mn khi tip xc vi vt dng, bnh cha, hng ha hoc m sng ca ng vt, thc vt. Cht thi lng c pH bng hoc nh hn 2. Cht thi th lng c th n mn thp vi tc ln hn 6,35 mm/nm nhit 55oC. L cht rn hoc lng hoc hn hp rn lng t phn ng ha hc to ra nhiu kh, nhit v p sut c th gy n.

1.2 H 4.1

Cht thi d chy

1.3 H 4.2 Cht thi c th t chy

1.4 H 4.3 2 H8 Cht thi to ra kh d chy Cht thi gy n mn (AM)

2.1 2.2

Cht thi c tnh axit Cht thi c tnh n mn H1 Cht thi d n (N)

3

4

Cht thi d b xi ha (OH)

4.1 H 5.1

Cht thi c cha clorat, pecmanganat, Cht thi cha cc tc nhn oxy peoxyt v c, nitrat v cc cht oxy ha ha v c khc khi tip xc vi khng kh, tch ly oxy th kch thch chy cc cht hoc vt liu khc. Cht thi cha peoxyt hu c Cht thi gy c cho ngi v sinh vt () Cht thi hu c c cu trc phn t - O O - khng bn vi nhit nn c th b phn hy v to nhit nhanh.

4.2 H 5.2

5

5.1 H 6.1

Cht thi gy c tnh cp

Cht thi c cha cht c c th gy t vong hoc tn thng trm trng khi tip xc qua ng tiu ha, h hp hoc qua da vi liu nh.

5.2 H 11

Cht thi c cha cc cht gy nh hng Cht thi gy c chm hoc c chm hoc mn tnh, hoc gy ung th mn tnh do tip xc qua ng tiu ha, h hp hoc qua da. Cht thi cha chc thnh phn m khi tip xc vi khng kh hoc tip xc vi nc th gii phng ra kh c i vi ngi hoc sinh vt. Cht thi c hi cho h sinh Cht thi cha cc thnh phn m c th thi (S) gy ra tc ng c hi nhanh hoc t t i vi mi trng thng qua tch ly sinh hc v/hoc gy nh hng n cc h sinh vt. Cht thi ly nhim bnh (LN) Cht thi c cha cc vi sinh vt sng hoc c t ca chng, c bit hoc nghi ng Cht thi sinh ra kh c

5.3 H 10

6

H 12

7

H 6.2

l c cc mm bnh c th gy bnh c ngi v cho gia sc.

1.1.5.nh hng ca cht thi nguy hi Tc ng ca mt vi cht thi nguy hi n mi trng: Kh SO2 + SO2 l cht kh khng mu, c mi hng v cay khi nng trong kh quyn l 1ppm. Sunfur l mt trong nhng ngun nhim chnh trong kh quyn v gy nh hng ti sc khe con ngi, bn vt liu v l nhn t chnh gy nn ma axit theo c cu sau: SO2 + H2O ------> H2SO3 H2SO3 -----> H+ + HSO3- ------> 2H+ + SO32SO32- + H2O ------> H2SO4 + Hi axit gp lnh s ngng t thnh sng m axit, chng tn ti l lng trong khng kh hoc hp th thm hi nc to thnh nhng git axit long H2O - H2SO4 v l nguyn nhn gy nn nhng cn ma axit. + SO2 tng i nng nn thng gn mt t, ngang vi tm sinh hot ca con ngi. Sunfur c kh nng ho tan trong nc cao hn cc kh gy nhim khc, nn d phn ng vi cc c quan h hp ca ngi v ng vt. Khi hm lng thp SO2 lm sng nim mc, khi hm lng cao (>0,5 mg/m3) SO2 gy tc th, ho, vim lot ng h hp. + Khi c mt ng thi SO2 v SO3, ch cn nng thp chng cng s c tc ng hp lc, phn ng sinh l pht sinh mnh hn so vi phn ng ca tng cht ring bit, thm ch gy co tht ph qun mnh v nng cao c th dn n nguy him cht ngi. Cc hp cht cha Halogen + Khi ht phi Cl, n s i vo ph qun, ph nang. Clo s tip xc vi cc cht nhy t m sng ca c th, to ra HClO vt qua mng t bo v ph hy cc t bo, Cl to nn dn sut nit clo ha. + Cc hp cht kh cha halogen ch cn nng rt nh cng gy c, nhim c nng v c kh nng gy nhim trn phm vi rng ln. + HF gy bnh sn xng, vim ph qun, tn thng rng. HF hn ch sinh trng ca cy, lm rng qu, lp qu. + HCl lm gim bng m ca l, gy thng tn cho cy trng, tn thng vt nui v lm gim lng sa. Cc hp cht hu c + Cc hp cht hu c thng rt c vi c th ngi v vt. Mt s hp cht hu c nh Bezen v PAH (hp cht cacbuahydro thm a nhn) c th l nguyn nhn gy bnh ung th.

+ Mt s cht hu c halogen l xc tc cho qu trnh phn hy ozon tng bnh lu. Mt s cht hu c hot tnh khc, li xc tin cho qu trnh phn ha vt cht v c bit mt s cht hu c gy nhim do mi nh cc mecaptan v alhyt. Mi ny gy cm gic kh chu v i khi cn km theo c nhim c v l nguyn nhn gy bnh cho ngi. + Dioxin v furan l nhng cht rt c. hm lng thp cng gy cc bnh v da, ph n c thai khi tip xc vi vi cc cht ny s sinh con thiu thng hoc qui thai. Nhim c nng s gy nn cc bnh v gan, mu, k c ung th v dn n t vong. ng vt b nhim Dioxin v Furan s gim trng lng ti 50% v s cht trong vng 2 3 tun. Kim loi nng + Kim loi nng l khi nim ch cc kim loi c nguyn t lng cao, thng c c tnh i vi s sng, v