Today  Sociolinguistics, Day 3  Correction  Finish Inter-group Variation: some patterns of variation associated with social class  Intra-Speaker Variation:

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  • Today Sociolinguistics, Day 3 Correction Finish Inter-group Variation: some patterns of variation associated with social class Intra-Speaker Variation: shifting style
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  • coke popsoft drink soda tonic cocola
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  • Lexical differences Words for sweetened carbonated beverage Coke CA, New Eng. Soda South, East Pop Midland North, West Tonic Boston Cocola Georgia, Tennessee
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  • Overt vs. Covert prestige Overt prestige: Value attached to a particular dialect by the community at large that defines how people should speak to gain status in that community. Covert prestige: Value attached to a particular dialect or minority group language by a subset of the community (local group, ethnic group).
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  • Social class and dialect William Labov New York City r-lessness Studied variation in [r] pronunciation as it relates to socioeconomic class
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  • Dept Store study - Method Interviewed salespeople at Saks 5 th Ave., (upper), Macys (middle), S. Klein (lower class) Excuse me, where are the [womens shoes]? Fourth floor. (casual speech) Excuse me? Fourth floor. (careful speech with emphasis)
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  • Dept Store study - Results KleinMacysSaks Casual8%44%63% Careful18%61%64% Percentage of [r]s produced Lower Middle Upper Interspeaker Variation Intraspeaker Variation
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  • Dept Store study - Conclusions Pronunciation of [r] increased w/ level of socio-economic class w/ attention level paid to speech (careful or casual) w/ listener (perceived middle-class) Variation most prominent among lower class speakers Why? Overt prestige
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  • Phonological markers of style Casual, informal style marked by increased speech rate unstressed vowels deleted, replaced with schwa, e.g., casual [ptHeIR] vs. careful [pHtHeIRoU] deletion of word final consonants, unstressed syllables (jus, don) use of contractions (wanna, gonna, coulda) potato
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  • Phonological markers of style pronunciation of (-ing) vs. (-in) in 3 different speech situations casual style vs. interview vs. reading [idIn] [idIN] pronounciation of [-ing] increased as formality/ attention paid to speech increased
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  • Lexical markers of style Slang: words and expressions used in very informal settings (common slang), often to indicate membership in a particular social group (in-group slang) usually has short lifespan swell, neat-o, groovy daddy-o It stinks! can become standardized phone, fridge, fan, blimp, hot dog
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  • Syntactic markers of style Casual speech characterized by increased use of non-standard constructions (e.g., double negatives, double modals) shorter, more concise sentences
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  • but Social Class Ethnicity Formality of setting Topic Age Can cause speakers to shift in other ways, too
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  • Code-switching as style-shifting Code-switching: alternation between two or more languages (or dialects) in a single sentence or conversation. Occurs for the same reasons monolinguals shift styles: change in formality of the situation, listener, topic
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  • Examples English~Spanish Sometimes I begin my sentences in English, y termino en espaol. Swahili (Kenya)~English: employee employee (same ethnicity): Swahili employee employee (differing ethnicity): mixed Swahili~English employee supervisor: mixed Swahili~English
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  • Examples Fanakalo (South Africa)~English Foreman: Hau, Wena Foreman: Ini ndaba you late lafa lo job, hey? Employee: My abject apologies, Sir, I encountered extreme difficulty In obtaining transport.
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  • Hypercorrection The act of producing nonstandard forms by way of false analogy, often to imitate the standard dialect Phonological: r-insertion Cuba(r), idea(r) Grammatical: Lets keep this between you and I. I dont know whom he is.
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  • Marthas Vineyard study William Labov Marthas Vineyard, MA diphthong centralization: [I], [[U] in why, wow (compare w/ standard: [ a I], [aU])
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  • Marthas Vineyard study - Results Native islanders centralized, tourists didnt regional effect Students planning to go to college and return to island centralized more than students not planning to return Portuguese immigrant community showed high degree of centralization
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  • Marthas Vineyard study - Conclusions How closely speakers identified w/ island was positively correlated w/ degree of centralization seeking covert prestige Dialect is an important factor in group identity
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  • Summary Standard vs. non-standard dialects Overt vs. covert prestige Dept. store study influence of standard dialect, overt prestige Marthas Vineyard study influence of non-standard dialect, covert prestige