GANDHINAGAR INSTITUTE OF
TECHNOLOGYACTIVE LEARNING ASSIGNMENT
CYBER SECURITY 
PREPARED BY:- UPADHYAY AYUSH (150123119053)
What is hacking?
Hacking is the gaining of access(wanted or unwanted) to a computer
and viewing, copying, or creating data(leaving a trace) without the
intention of destroying data or maliciously harming the computer.
Hacking is a broad term used to describe many complex activities
wherein the end goal is typically to obtain access to a computer
system's servers, database(s), or stored files. This access may be any
combination or desired or undesired, and legal or illegal.
A hacker is any person engaged in hacking.
Person who gains authorized/unauthorized access to a computer
WITHOUT the intention of causing damage.
In the computer security context, a hacker is someone who seeks
and exploits weaknesses in a computer system or computer network.
Hackers may be motivated by a multitude of reasons, such as profit,
protest, challenge, enjoyment, or to evaluate those weaknesses to
assist in removing them. The subculture that has evolved around
hackers is often referred to as the computer underground.
Types of hacker
Hackers are of three types:
1. White hat hacker
2. Gray hat hacker
3. Black hat hacker
Why do hackers hack ?
Just for fun.
Hack other systems secretly.
Steal many people their thought, important information.
Destroy enemys computer network during the war.
Types of hacking
Online Banking Hacking
1. Website Hacking:- Hacking a website means taking control from the website
owner to a person who hacks the website.
2. Network Hacking:- Network Hacking is generally means gathering information
about domain by using tools like Telnet, Ns look UP, Ping, Tracert, Netstat, etc
over the network.
3. Ethical Hacking:- Ethical hacking is where a person hacks to find weaknesses in
a system and then usually patches them.
4. Email Hacking:- Email hacking is illicit access to an email account or email
5. Password Hacking:- Password Hacking Password cracking is the process of
recovering secret passwords from data that has been stored in or transmitted by a
6. Online Banking Hacking:- Online banking Hacking Unauthorized accessing bank
accounts without knowing the password or without permission of account holder is
known as Online banking hacking.
7. Computer Hacking:- Computer Hacking is when files on your computer are
viewed, created, or edited without your authorization.
Robert Tappan Morris
Robert Tappan Morris was born in 8th November, 1965.
He is an American computer scientist and entrepreneur.
He is best known for creating the Morris Worm in 1988, considered the
first computer worm on the Internet.
Morris was prosecuted for releasing the worm, and became the first
person convicted under the then-new Computer Fraud and Abuse Act.
He later joined the faculty in the department of Electrical Engineering
and Computer Science at the MIT, where he received tenure in 2006.
Early Life Morris was born in 1965 to parents Robert Morris and Anne Farlow Morris.
The senior Morris was a computer scientist at Bell Labs, who helped design
Multics and Unix; and later became the chief scientist at the National Computer
Security Centre, a division of the National Security Agency (NSA).
He grew up in the Millington section of Long Hill Township, New Jersey and
graduated from Delbarton School in 1983.
Morris attended Harvard University, and later went on to graduate school at
Cornell. During his first year there, he designed a computer worm that
disrupted many computers on what was then a fledgling internet. This landed
him in court a year later.
The Morris WormMorris' worm was developed in 1988, while he was a graduate student at
Cornell University. He said it was designed to gauge the size of the Internet.
He released the worm from MIT, rather than from Cornell. The worm
exploited several vulnerabilities to gain entry to targeted systems, including:
o a hole in the debug mode of the Unix send mail program,
o a buffer overrun hole in the fingerd network service,
o the transitive trust enabled by people setting up rexec/rsh network logins
without password requirements.
The worm was programmed to check each computer it found to
determine if the infection was already present. However, Morris
believed that some administrators might try to defeat his worm by
instructing the computer to report a false positive. To compensate
for this possibility, Morris directed the worm to copy itself anyway,
14% of the time, no matter what the response to the infection-status
This level of persistence was a design flaw: it created system loads
that not only brought it to the attention of system administrators, but
also disrupted the target computers. During the ensuing trial, it was
estimated that the cost in "potential loss in productivity" caused by
the worm and efforts to remove it from different systems ranged
from $200 to $53,000.
In 1989, Morris was indicted for violating United States Code Title 18,
the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. He was the first person to be indicted
under this act. In December 1990, he was sentenced to three years of
probation, 400 hours of community service, and a fine of $10,050 plus the
costs of his supervision. He appealed, but the motion was rejected the
Morris' stated motive during the trial was "to demonstrate the
inadequacies of current security measures on computer networks by
exploiting the security defects [he] had discovered.He completed his
sentence as of 1994.
Later life & work
Morris' principal research interest is computer network
architectures which includes work on distributed hash tables such as
Chord and wireless mesh networks such as Roof net.
He is a long time friend and collaborator of Paul Graham. In
addition to founding two companies together, Graham dedicated his
book ANSI Common Lisp to Morris, and named the programming
language that generates the online stores' web pages RTML in his
honour. Graham lists Morris as one of his personal heroes, saying
"he's never wrong.