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Development of Headforms and an Anthropometric Sizing Analysis System for Head-Related Product Designs

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Development of Headforms andan Anthropometric Sizing Analysis System (3D-ASAS)for Head-Related Product DesignsWonsup Lee1, 2, Baekhee Lee2, Sungho Kim2, Hayoung Jung2, Ilguen Bok3, Chulwoo Kim3, Ochae Kwon3, Teukgyu Choi4, and Heecheon You21Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands2Department of Industrial and Management Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, South Korea3Design Team, Mobile Communication Division, Samsung Electronics, Seoul, South Korea4Humanopia, Co. Ltd., Pohang, South Korea

Ranked No. 1 in 2012-2014at the Times 100 under 50Young University Rankings


ContentsIntroductionBackgroundObjectives of the StudyAnalysis of CAESAR 3D Scan DataDevelopment of 3D-ASASDevelopment of headformsDiscussion


Usefulness of 3D Body Scans for Product DesignSupport various and detailed measurementsSupport complex dimensions (e.g., curvature, shape, area, volume) which are directly applicable to product designs

Design of earset based on size and shape of representative ear found from 300 earsApplication of 3D scan images to the product designs (Lee et al., 2015)Design of dust-proof mask based on key 3D curvatures of the face (N = 336)Virtual fit analysis for an optimal design of pilots oxygen mask by applying all 336 3D facial shapes

#CAESAR DatabaseCivilian American European Surface Anthropometry Resource (CAESAR)Survey year: 1998 ~ 2001Sample size2,400 North Americans (USA, Canadian)2,000 Europeans (Dutch, Italian)EthnicityCaucasian (82%; N = 3,500)African American (6%; N = 300)others (Asian, Hispanic, and ethnic minorities; 12%; N = 600)Age: 18 ~ 65Database3D scan images (3 postures)80 landmarks40 traditional measurements60 3D measurementsdemographic information



Needs of Post-Processing of CAESAR Image

Poor quality or unnatural shape in CAESAR 3D headsLarge uncaptured area on the left side of headLots of holesUnnaturally volumized hair Post-processing is required for better use to the product design

#Needs of Sizing System and RHMs Analysis SystemSizing system and representative human models (RHMs) are more useful than raw 3D scan database for product designersHowever, statistical analyses of sizing system and RHMs are quite complex to be performed by product designers

Product designerProduct designerVs.

sizing system


hundreds of raw 3D scan images A computerized program is required for easy and convenient analyses of sizing system and RHMs for PD practitioners



ObjectivesIdentification of design dimensions and head anthropometric dimensions for head-related product designsPost-processing of CAESAR 3D head images for the measurement of head dimensionsDevelopment of a computerized system (3D-ASAS) which supports the product design in terms of anthropometric analysis, sizing system generation, and RHMs analysisUtilization of 3D-ASAS to develop digital and physical headforms applicable to the product designDevelopment of Headforms andan Anthropometric Sizing Analysis System (3D-ASAS)for Head-Related Product Designs

#ApproachIdentification of product design dimensions and related head anthropometric dimensionsPost-processing of CAESAR 3D headsS1S2S4Development of 3D-ASASLandmarking and anthropometric measurement of CAESAR headsS3S5Development of headforms

#S1. Identification of Head Anthropometric DimensionsIdentified 122 head dimensions by referring to 18 previous studiesLength dimensions: 53Depth dimensions: 29Width dimensions: 18Circumference/arc dimensions: 22Illustration of head and facial dimensions


Type of ProductshelmetgoogleglassesHMDheadphone:headband typeheadphone:neckband typeneckband

Determined 7 head-related products through discussion of a panel of ergonomists and expert product designers



Design Dimensions and Related Head Dimensions: HelmetDesign dimensions (16)Head dimensions (18)

outer width

top-of-head totop-of-earlengthouterlengthinner width

heightforehead to top-of-head length

ear widthforehead toear lengthear length

side-to-back arc

inner lengthinner circumference

front-to-backinner arctop-of-head to bottom-of-ear length

side-to-top arcside-to-front arcred: key dimensions

head breadthhead circumferenceglabella-vertex-occiput archead length

bitragion-vertex arcglabella to vertex lengthtragion to vertex lengthsuperior auricle to vertex lengthInferior auricle to vertex length

ear breadthglabella to tragion lengthear length

bitragion-glabella arc

inion to vertex lengthbitragion-inion arc

Identified design dimensions and related head dimensions for each product



Key Design & Anthropometric DimensionsNo.Product typeKey designdimensionRelated key anthropometric dimension1Helmetinner lengthhead lengthinner widthhead breadth2glasseswidthbiocular breadthframe lengthotobasion superius to ectocanthus length3goggleglass arcbizygofrontale arcframe lengthotobasion superius to ectocanthus length4HMDforehead arcbizygofrontale arczygomatic arcbizygomatic-subnasale arc5headphone: headband typeheadband lengthbitragion-vertex arcinner widthbitragion breadth6headphone: neckband typeneckband arcbitragion-inion arcinner widthbitragion breadth7neckbandcircumferenceneck circumference

Identified key design dimensions and related key anthropometric dimensions for each product



S2. Sample of CAESAR Post-ProcessedNo.CategoryMaleFemale1Used in this study (N = 2,299)1,08696.8%1,21396.1% Caucasian86276.8%95675.8% African American1119.9%14711.6% Asian817.2%927.3% Hispanic322.9%181.4%2Excluded samples363.2%493.9% Ethnic minorities232.0%413.2% Heads have huge uncaptured area70.6%10.1% Heads much deformed during scanning20.2%50.4% Heads with no ethnic information20.2%10.1% Inappropriate data structure20.2%-- Head with eye patch--10.1%total1,122100%1,262100%2,384



Post-Processing of CAESAR HeadsManual post-processing of 2,299 CAESAR headsHole-fillingModification of hair styleSmoothingElimination of unnatural featuresRotation of headLandmarkingProcessing time: 260h

#S3. Landmarks Used in This Study

Landmarks identified in CAESAR database(red dot; 9 landmarks on the head)Landmarks identified in this research(green dot; 19 landmarks on the head)Manual identification of 19 additional landmarks for the measurement of 30 head dimensions

#Measurements: Caucasian MaleAll head dimensions were automatically measured using a Matlab program by ethnic groupNo.Anthropometric dimensionsNMeanSDMinMaxPercentile1st5th95th99th1head height854229.712.8193.9274.6200.7208.9250.2259.32head length862195.49.3169.0219.0174.0180.0210.0214.03head breadth854151.56.9135.0172.0137.0141.0163.0167.04head circumference854568.120.8512.0622.0522.0534.0602.0613.05face length854123.89.0101.7159.7105.4109.9139.1148.96face width862144.38.8119.0171.7126.8131.1159.5167.57inion to vertex length857164.310.6132.9195.4141.6147.5182.6188.88glabella to vertex length86288.17.169.7107.372.476.399.6104.09tragion to vertex length859141.17.1120.8162.2125.3129.8153.6158.810menton to subnasale length85470.97.051.8107.256.860.482.790.111ear length86158.25.940.175.245.648.968.371.412nose length86253. to ectocanthus length86018.93.58.829.610.813.124.926.914sellion to tragion length86193.36.075.4111.280.583.6102.9108.015nose protrusion86216.12.86.725.99.311.520.723.0

#S4. Development of3D Anthropometric Sizing Analysis System (3D-ASAS)

#System Interface: Input

S1. Selection of target productS2. Selection of target population

S3. Selection of number of size categories for sizing system

S4. Selection of key anthropometric dimensions

#System Interface: Output

Sizing system

Accommodation percentage of the generated sizing systemRepresentative heads according to the sizing systemInterface for adjustment of the sizing system

#Adjustment of Sizing System (Illustrated)

Accommodation percentage: 96.3%Accommodation percentage: 72%Manually adjusted sizing system for better accommodationInitial sizing system recommended by 3D-ASAS


#Demonstration of 3D-ASAS

#Development of Headforms

Original CAESAR scan(format: point cloud mesh)Edited model(format: NURBS)

3D printed modelDigital and 3D-printed physical headforms developed based on RHMs extracted through 3D-ASAS

#Contribution: Improvement of CAESAR Heads

This study devoted effort to improve quality of CAESAR 3D head images for its useful application to the head-related product designsImproved database (N = 2,299) is applicable to further head and facial anthropometric studiesPost measurementShape analysisVirtual fitting

#Contribution: 3D-ASAS

3D anthropometric sizing analysis system (3D-ASAS) was developed for a convenient utilization in the product design processSystem function and interface were developed based on PD practitioners needsUser-friendly interfaceDescriptive statistics of measurementsStatistic-based analysisGeneration of sizing systemRecommendation of RHMsSave and load results

#ApplicationsImproved CAESAR heads and 3D-ASAS can be applied to find an optimal shape of product through virtual fit analysisDigital and physical headforms can be utilized to product design and usability evaluation phases in PD process

Digital and physical headforms of RHMsIllustration of the virtual fit analysis for oxygen mask design


Q & AErgonomic Design Technology Labat Pohang University of Science and Technologyhtt