Driver fatigue

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  1. 1. FATIGUEFATIGUE ((,, )) MANAGEMENT FORMANAGEMENT FOR DRIVERS and MobileDRIVERS and Mobile Equipment OperatorsEquipment Operators OH&S Department - AecomOH&S Department - Aecom AECOM
  2. 2. Version 02 | 20-NOV-2013 Training Outline Goal: To provide you with the knowledge and skills to manage fatigue-related risk ((,, )) 1. The causes and consequences of fatigue 2. Fatigue management. How to manage operator and individual obligations. 3. Personal fatigue management strategies
  3. 3. Version 02 | 20-NOV-2013 What is Fatigue? Fatigue (,, )) can be described as a gradual decline of physical and mental alertness that leads to drowsiness or sleepiness. Fatigue becomes a problem when it jeopardizes a drivers ability to perform tasks that require alertness, judgment and good reflexes.
  4. 4. Version 02 | 20-NOV-2013 Discussion What are some conditions that make you feel particularly tired or fatigued at work?
  5. 5. Version 02 | 20-NOV-2013 The Body Clock Known as circadian rhythms Operates on a 24-hour cycle Makes you sleepy when its dark and awake when its light Controls a variety of body functions: Sleepiness Digestion Hormone production Body temperature The human body is programmed to sleep at night and stay awake during the day, regardless of our activities. This phenomenon is known as the circadian cycle, internal clock or biological clock.
  6. 6. Version 02 | 20-NOV-2013 Sleep Its not true that you need less sleep as you get older When you sleep makes a difference in how much you get Sleep is best obtained in a single block. Less than 7 or more than 9 hrs of sleep is associated with poorer health (vs 7-8 hrs sleep) Short-term (few days) you can get by with 6 hrs + naps Most people require between 7 to 8 uninterrupted hours of sleep every 24 hours on a regular basis. When was the last time you had eight hours of sleep?
  7. 7. Version 02 | 20-NOV-2013 There are two types of sleep: NREM (non-rapid eye movement) and REM (rapid eye movement) They alternate through the night. Both are required for quality sleep. Types of SleepTypes of Sleep Sleep loss adds up and creates a sleep debt Sleep loss leads to increased sleepiness Sleep loss has consequences Repeated loss of REM sleep can lead to neurotic behavior When you sleep, you cycle through four different sleep stages
  8. 8. Version 02 | 20-NOV-2013 There are a number of factors that cause disrupted sleep: Agewith age, sleep becomes less deep, more disrupted, and a total decrease in sleep occurs Alcohol and caffeine Medications Environment (physical & emotional) Sleep disorders (sleep apnea) Prior sleep and wakefulness Factors that Affect SleepFactors that Affect Sleep
  9. 9. Version 02 | 20-NOV-2013 Good Sleeping Habits Keep to a regular bedtime routine Be careful what you eat or drink before bed Adjust your bedtime gradually if your shift changes Naps can supplement sleep, not replace it Naps 10 minutes or longer can improve alertness, communication and mood The value of a nap doesnt depend on the time of day Allow 5 to 20 minutes for sleep inertia to pass. Alcohol can help you relax before bed, but it can also disrupt your sleep Sleeping pills are best used occasionally or for only a few days at a time Cold and flu medication can keep you from sleeping. GET NAPS AVOID ALCOHOL
  10. 10. Night Driving Potential 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 Noon Midnight NightDayDawn Dusk TotalDeaths The dangerous hours
  11. 11. Feeling cramped or fidgety Your vehicle wandering on the road Your speed varies Overtaking vehicles startling youYawning unavoidably Your mind is wandering Your eyelids are heavy You are impatient Signs of FatigueSigns of Fatigue
  12. 12. Version 02 | 20-NOV-2013 Causes of Fatigue Driver-related: circadian cycles (biological clock), health condition (physical and mental), amount and quality of sleep, number of working hours, diet, fitness, home life, age, etc. Work-related: corporate culture, time of day, length of work shift, lack of enough rest periods, rotating schedules, night work, volume of physical or mental workload, etc. Environment-related: vehicle ergonomics, type of trip, road and weather conditions, availability of rest areas, monotony of the road, environmental stress (heat, noise and vibrations), etc.
  13. 13. Version 02 | 20-NOV-2013 When youre fatigued: your reaction time is slower you have trouble concentrating or remembering things you may have difficulty communicating clearly with co-workers you may fall asleep on the job theres a greater risk youll make a safety-critical mistake Being fatigued can make you a risk to yourself, your co-workers, and the public Effects of FatigueEffects of Fatigue
  14. 14. Version 02 | 20-NOV-2013 Joint Responsibility for Fatigue Organisational Responsibilities Employee Responsibilities Work-related Hours of work Workload & environment Non work-related FATIGUEFATIGUE Situation & lifestyle Medical disorders
  15. 15. Version 02 | 20-NOV-2013 Employer/e Responsibilities EMPLOYER EMPLOYEE Insert techniques that can be used to ensure you are fit for duty. Insert techniques used to manage this risk Discuss techniques used to assess if fit for duty and subsequent protocols if not. Discuss operations manual Fatigue occurrence reports Fatigue occurrence reports, how managed from company perspective. Culture (reporting/just etc).
  16. 16. Version 02 | 20-NOV-2013 Drink Plenty of Fluids Dehydration slows you down and increases feelings of sluggishness Working in heat, air conditioning, or at night can be dehydrating Drinking coffee, tea, soft drinks, or alcohol, and eating salty foods can make you feel thirstier Adults should drink at least 2 liters of fluid a day. Has stimulant effects that can improve alertness and performance Best used strategically only when you really need help staying awake Takes 15-30 minutes to take effect and the effects can last up to 5 hours You can develop both a dependence and a tolerance COFFEE
  17. 17. Version 02 | 20-NOV-2013 Eating Right Maintaining blood sugar levels is key to controlling ups and downs in energy levels Eating low-fat, high-protein foods can actually increase alertness High-fat foods can slow you down High-sugar foods can cause your blood sugar to rise and fall quickly. High Glycemic Index (GI) Foods French fries, doughnuts, muffins, bread (white or whole grain), Cornflakes, rice (white or quick brown), cakes Low GI Foods Fish (canned in water), low-fat dairy (cottage cheese, yoghurt), lean meat (steak, chicken breast, lamb), pasta, All-Bran, porridge, hard boiled eggs, peanuts, lentils, fresh fruit
  18. 18. Version 02 | 20-NOV-2013 Physical Exercise Good for your overall health Can help you sleep better and feel more rested Helps relieve stress, boost your health, strengthen your immune function, and improve muscle tone and strength Any activity that keeps your heart rate elevated for at least 20 minutes is good. Get enough sleep Spend time with friends and family Enjoy time for yourself Stay fit and healthy
  19. 19. Commuting One of the most dangerous things you can do while fatigued is drive You may be driving during the very times that your body most wants to sleep Nightshift workers are 4 to 7 times as likely to have an accident driving home.
  20. 20. Effects of fatigue on operating a vehicle Fatigue adversely affects driving performance. There is a very strong connection between fatigue and errors leading up to an accident. Drivers do not have to be falling asleep at the wheel for fatigue to impair their ability to operate a vehicle. Recognizing and controlling the effects of fatigue can prevent highway crashes and save lives. Fatigue: decreases reaction time; decreases alertness; distorts judgment; impairs memory; reduces a drivers field of vision; increases the risk of drowsiness and sleepiness.
  21. 21. Warning sign of fatigue behind the wheel Frequent yawning, nodding off. Trouble finding a comfortable position. Involuntary lane changes. Delayed braking. No memory of the last few kilometers travelled. Difficulty maintaining a constant speed. Failure to check mirrors. Missing an exit. Hallucinations. How to counteract fatigue while driving Pull your vehicle over into a safe location. Take a short nap. Studies show that even a 20- to 30-minute nap will help restore alertness for a period of two to three hours. Take a rest break to stretch your legs. Perform stretching exercises. Jump on the spot anything to get oxygen to the brain!
  22. 22. Brakes Steering Lights Tyres Correct tyre inflation Oil and water levels Clean windscreen Windscreen washers working Seat and steering adjustment Mirrors Seat belts Pre start checks
  23. 23. plan your trip to avoid long drives after a full days work; plan your work to avoid long drives before you start work; have a light meal before you leave; take a coffee during the intervals; avoid drinking alcohol before or during the trip; and if you have a co driver, share the driving and change over every 2 hour. The basics of your plan should be: Travel Plan
  24. 24. Note: Loading of vehicles and trailers can raise the position of your headlights to an extent that, even on low beam, your lights can blind oncoming drivers. Night driving precautions include: allowing more distance between you and the next vehicle; driving slower; keeping windscreens and mirrors clean; and making sure your load doesnt affect the position of your lights. Night driving
  25. 25. Face your vehicle one metre away from a wall. Put a mark on the ground and a corresponding mark on one of the tyres. Find the headlight adjusting screws under the bonnet. Mark the position of the screws. Turn the lights on and set