A World of Energy

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  • 1.A World of Energy ENGR40 Foothill College

2. Overview

  • What is Energy?
  • Units and conversion
  • World energy use
    • Trends
    • Projections
  • Energy by type and use
    • EROI (conversion), and emissions
  • Designing an energy system for GHGs?

3. What is Energy?

  • Capacity to do work
  • Intrinsic energy
    • Chemical
    • Electromagnetic, kinetic, thermal, etc
  • In physics , energy ( Ancient Greek : energeia "activity, operation" [1] ) is an indirectly observed quantity. It is often understood as the ability a physical system has to do work on other physical systems. [2] [3] Since work is defined as a forceacting through a distance (a length of space), energy is always equivalent to the ability to exert pulls or pushes against the basic forces of nature
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy

4. Energy Units and Conversion

  • Ergs -http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erg
  • Joules -http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joules
  • Watt -http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watt
  • BTU -http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BTU
  • kWh -http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KWh

5. Terminology

  • Energy density(wh/m3)
  • Power density(w/m3)
  • Specific energy(energy/mass)
  • EROEI Energy Return on Energy Invested (a key metric for energy)
  • Emission factor carbon dioxide profile (this can be in CO 2equivalents or LCA)

6. Energy Density / Specific Energy 7. 8. World Energy Use

  • Where are we now?
  • How did we get here?
  • Where are we headed?
  • What are our needs?
  • What is/there a plan?

9. Projected World Energy Use http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_energy_consumption 10. World Energy by Type and End Use

  • New Scientist has a topic guide on Energy and Fuels . Their niceinfographicsshows World Energy use by fuel type (oil, coal, gas, biomass, nuclear, hydro) and usage (transport, electricity, industry and residential/other).http://energycrash.blogspot.com/2009_08_01_archive.html

11. Estimated Daily Consumption of Energy per Capita at Different Historical Points Adapted from: E. Cook, "The Flow of Energy in an Industrial Society" Scientific American , 1971 p. 135 . 12. Income and Energy Use Energy consumption and income: A semiparametric panel data analysis 13. 14. US Energy Flows Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories 15. World Energy Use by Source

  • First there waswood
  • Then there wascharcoal
  • Next came (mineral)coal
  • Followed bypetroleum , naturalgas
  • Hydroelectric(from paddle wheels)
  • Wind(pumping) to turbines
  • Geothermal(steam => electric)
  • Solar(thermal, PV, and CSP)
  • Nuclearenergy (power)

16. First there was Fire Incontrovertible evidence of widespread control of fire dates to approximately 125,000 years ago and later. [ 17. Wood

  • The earth contains about 1 trillion tons of wood, which grows at a rate of 10 billion tons/y.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wood
  • The Amount of Energy in Wood Fuel
    • http://mb-soft.com/juca/print/311.html
  • In a laboratory, it is possible to get about 8660 Btu/lb of dry wood fuel (~6000 wet)
  • Wood was (once) abundant, and affordable

18. Charcoalhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charcoal

  • Charcoalis the dark grey residue consisting of impurecarbonobtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. Charcoal is usually produced by slow pyrolysis , the heating ofwoodor other substances in the absence of oxygen(see pyrolysis, char, and biochar). The resulting soft, brittle, lightweight, black, porous material resemblescoal.

19. 20. 21. Coal

  • Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rocknormally occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coalbeds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure toelevated temperature and pressure. Coal is composed primarily of carbon along with variable quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, with smaller quantities of sulfur, oxygen and nitrogen.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coal 22. Chemical Structure of Coal - Struktura_chemiczna_wgla_kamiennego.svg

  • The structure of coal comprises a mixture of Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) including lesser amounts of hydrogenated carbon, and both oxygen (ether) and sulfide linking. Stoichiometrically it is about 85% C and 15% H.

23. 24. Petroleum

  • Petroleum (L. petroleum, from Greek: petra (rock) + Latin: oleum (oil)) or crude oil is a naturally occurring, flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds, that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petroleum 25. Petroleum and Octanehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petroleum 26. Proven Oil Reserves http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petroleum 27. 28. Total World reserves of oil

  • The majority of world oil supplies are unconventional leading to development of tar sands or oil sands, which are also called bitumen. Canada and Venezuela have the largest amount of unconventional petroleum, significantly exceeding all conventional petroleum reserves.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petroleum 29. 30. 31. Natural Gas

  • Natural gas is a gas consisting primarily of methane , typically with 020% higher hydrocarbons ( primarilyethane ). It is found associated with other hydrocarbon fuel, in coal beds , as methane clathrates , and is an important fuel source and a major feedstock for fertilizers .
  • Most natural gas is created by two mechanisms: biogenic and thermogenic. Biogenic gas is created bymethanogenicorganisms in marshes , bogs , landfills , and shallow sediments. Deeper in the earth, at greater temperature and pressure, thermogenic gas is created from buried organic material.
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_gas

32. Methane 33. Methane Hydrates (methane in ice) off Oregon coast http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methane_clathrate

  • Methane clathrate , also called methane hydrate , hydromethane , methane ice , "fire ice" and natural gas hydrate , is a solid clathrate compound (more specifically, a clathrate hydrate ) in which a large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water, forming a solid similar to ice .

34. Methane Hydrates http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methane_clathrate 35. 36. Biomass Energy

  • Biofuel is a type of fuel which is in some way derived from biomass . The term covers solid biomass , liquid fuels and various biogases . Biofuels are gaining increased public and scientific attention, driven by factors such as oil price spikes , the need for increased energy security , concern over greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels , and government subsidies .

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomass_energy 37. Ethanol Fuel (Brazil) 38. Algal Biofuels The global biofuels industry is entering a new decade of emerging opportunities and considerable challenges in reaching 2020 targets. The global economic recession is already shaking out many of the would-be players in a crowded algae space, and favoring new players with improved strategies . http://www.chem.info/Articles/2010/03/Alternative-Energy-Algae-Investment-Trends-Advanced-Biofuels-Insight/ 39. Hydroelectric Energy

  • Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower ; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy . Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the project produces no direct waste, and has a considerably lower output level of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) than fossil fuel powered energy plants. Worldwide, an installed capacity of 777 GWe supplied 2998 TWh of hydroelectricity in 2006. [1] This was approximately 20% of the world's electricity, and accounted for about 88% of electricity from renewable sources. [2]
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydroelectricity

40. Hydroelectric Energy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydroelectricity 41. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydroelectricity Hydroelectric Energy 42. Geothermal Energy Global capacity of geothermal electric power plants. Upper line is nameplate capacity, lower line is realized production.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geothermal_electricity 43. Solar (PV and CSP) Solar areas defined by the dark disks could provide more than the world's total primary energy demand (assuming a conversion efficiency of 8%). That is, all energy currently consumed, including heat, electricity, fossil fuels, etc., would be produced in the form of electricity by solar cells. The colors in the map show the local solar irradiance averaged over three years from 1991 to 1993 (24 hours a day) taking into account the cloud coverage available from weather satellites.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_energy 44.