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Effective Communication in the Workplace “WORDS ARE THE MOST POWERFUL DRUG USED BY MANKIND”. (RUDYARD KIPLING)

Osh presentation2-2011

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Page 1: Osh presentation2-2011

Effective Communication in the Workplace

“WORDS ARE THE MOST POWERFUL DRUG USED BY MANKIND”.

(RUDYARD KIPLING)

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“To listen closely and reply well is the highest perfection we are able to attain in the art of conversation”

“LA ROCHEFOUCAULD”

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WHAT IS COMMUNICATION ?

Many definitions e.g.

• “Communication is the process of transmitting

information from one person to another”

• “The transfer of information and understanding

from one person to another person”. (Keith Davis)

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• Communication is a social process.

• Communication is like a chain process made up of identifiable links.

• “A process of transmitting and receiving verbal and non-verbal messages that produce a response”

(MURPHY AND HILDEBRANDT)

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COMMUNICATION IS REPRESENTED BY:

10% WORDS – WHAT WE SAY

30% SOUNDS – TONE

60% BODY LANGUAGE – HOW WE SAY IT

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EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION• Effective communication occurs when the message

received is as close as possible to the message intended to be sent – i.e. mutual understanding.

Communication is effective only if people:

- Understand each other- Stimulate others to take action- Encourage others to think in new ways

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SEVEN “C’s” OF COMMUNICATION

• COMPLETENESS – contains all facts the reader or listener needs for desired action.

• CONCISENESS• CONSIDERATION• CONCRETENESS• CLARITY• COURTESY• CORRECTNESS

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ORGANISATIONAL BENEFITS OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONS

– INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY– ANTICIPATE PROBLEMS– MAKE DECISIONS– COORDINATE WORKFLOW– SUPERVISE OTHERS– DEVELOP RELATIONSHIPS– BETTER UNDERSTANDING IN THE WORKPLACE

IN GENERAL

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COMMUNICATION CONTEXT

• PHYSICAL CONTEXT

• CULTURAL CONTEXT

• SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTEXT

• TEMPORAL (TIME) CONTEXT

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PHYSICAL CONTEXT

• TANGIBLE OR CONCRETE ENVIRONMENT i.e. ROOM OR HALLWAY OR PARK.

• EXERT INFLUENCE ON THE CONTENT (WHAT WE SAY) AS WELL AS THE FORM (HOW WE SAY IT) OF THE MESSAGE.

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CULTURAL CONTEXT• REFERS TO THE COMMUNICATORS’ RULES AND

NORMS, BELIEFS AND ATTITUDES THAT ARE TRANSMITTED FROM ONE GENERATION TO ANOTHER.

• DIRECT EYE CONTECT BETWEEN CHILD AND ADULT SIGNIFIES DIRECTNESS AND HONEST IN ONE CULTURE AND DEFIANCE AND LACK OF RESPECT IN OTHER.

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SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTEXT

• INCLUDE STATUS RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE PARTICIPANTS, THE ROLES AND THE GAMES THE PEOPLE PLAY, AND THE CULTURAL ROLE OF THE SOCIETY IN WHICH THEY ARE COMMUNICATING.

• INCLUDE FRIENDLINESS OR UNFRIENDLINESS, FORMALITY OR INFORMALITY, AND SERIOUSNESS OR HUMOUROUSNESS OF THE SITUATION.

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TEMPORAL CONTEXT

• TIME OF DAY AS WELL AS TIME OF HISTORY

• FOR MANY PEOPLE MORNING IS NOT A TIME FOR COMMUNICATION; FOR OTHERS IT IS IDEAL

• APPROPRIATENESS AND IMPACT OF MESSAGES DEPEND, IN PART, ON THE TIME IN WHICH THEY ARE UTTERED.

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Types of Communication in the workforce

• INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION• CORPORATE COMMUNICATION• FORMAL COMMUNICATION• NON-FORMAL COMMUNICATION• ORAL COMMUNICATION• WRITTEN COMMUNICATION• NON-VERBAL COMUNICATION

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Communication Fundamentals

Direction:• Downward• Upward• Crosswise

Networks:• Formal vs. Informal

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Formal Communication Channels

• Downward communication– top down

• Upward communication– bottom up

• Horizontal– within a level

2.2

The system of formal communication channels includes:

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Communication Networks

Chain Wheel All Channels

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The Communication Process

1. The sender is unsure what message to communicate

2. The message is not clearly encoded

3. The wrong channel is chosen

4. The message is improperly decoded

5. The receiver lacks experience or time

Noise occurs if:

2.1

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Common Problems with Downward, Upward, and Horizontal Communication

Downward

• Sending too many messages• Issuing contradictory messages• Hurriedly communicating vague, unclear messages• Issuing messages indicating management’s low regard for

lower-level workers

Upward• Risk of telling upper management about problems• Managers acting angrily and defensively to problems• Few opportunities for workers to contact upper levels of

management

Horizontal

• Management discouraging or punishing horizontal communication

• Managers and workers not given time or opportunity for horizontal communication

• Not enough opportunities or channels for lower-level workers to engage in horizontal communication

2.2

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Informal Communication Channels

• Transmitting messages outside the formal communication channels

• The “Grapevine”• Highly accurate– information is timely– senders seek feedback– accuracy can be verified

2.3

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Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

12–21

The Grapevine“The grapevine motto: Good information passes among people fairly rapidly—bad information, even faster!”•Grapevine– An unofficial channel of

communication that is neither authorized nor supported by the organization.

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Managing Organizational Grapevines

• Don’t withhold information from it

• Don’t punish those who use it

• Embrace the grapevine and keep employees informed

• Use it as a source of information

2.3

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Nonverbal Communication • Any communication that

doesn’t involve words• Kinesics– movements of the body

and face• Paralanguage– the pitch, tone, rate,

volume, and speaking pattern of a person’s voice

2.5

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Barriers to Communication

• Physical Barriers• Lack of Communication skills• Language Barriers• Barriers of Attitude• Emotional Barriers• Filtering• Selective Perception

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How to Improve Communication

Choosing the Right Communication Medium

Being a good listener

Giving effective feedback

3

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How to overcome communication barriers?

• Use the right choice of words• A single word can cause a lot of misunderstanding• Simple understandable languages is the best

means of communication• Be straight forward and clearly express one’s

opinion without feelings during the interaction.• Body language should be positive and voice

should be clear and audible.

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How to overcome communication barriers?

• One should concentrate upon the conservation and not get distracted by anything in the surrounding

• Good listening skills is also an integral part• Listen to each and every word that the speaker is

trying to say• Do not interrupt when others are saying something• Do not let individual grudge come over your way of

communication.

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Choosing the Right Communication Medium

Communication Medium

The method used to deliver an oral orwritten message.

• Oral communication

• Written communication

3.1

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Listening

Hearingversus

Listening

ActiveListening

EmphaticListening

3.2

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Managing Organization-Wide Communication

ImprovingTransmission:

Getting theMessage Out

Improving Reception

4

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email

online discussion forums

televised / videotapedspeeches and conferences

corporate talk shows

broadcast voice mail

Improving Transmission

Getting the Message Out

4.1

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Establishing Online Discussion Forums

KnowledgeAudit

OnlineDirectory

DiscussionGroups on

Internet

RewardInformation

Sharing

Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4

4.1

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Improving Reception

• Company hotlines

• Survey feedback

• Informal meetings

• Surprise visits

• Blogs4.2

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Importance of Communication in an Organization.

• Creates job satisfaction• Lesser workplace conflicts• Increases workplace productivity• Secure work future• Formation of relationships• Proper utilization of resources.

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Key Communication Skills

• Listening Skills• Feedback Skills• Presentation skills