חלקיק טעון בשדה אלקטרומגנטי. 1D electric field Constant electric field Potential electric field

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  • 1D electric field Constant electric field Potential electric field
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  • Constant magnetic field NR
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  • Constant perpendicular fields Change frame
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  • Drifts (NR)
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  • Gradient drift
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  • Curvature drift
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  • Drift currents: gg rgrg At y=0, for any given particle we have: where : is the Assume to lowest order f is independent of g, and dependent just on y.
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  • is the phase space density of particles whos gyro center is y gc and gyro phase is g. Assume to lowest order f is independent of g, and dependent just on y. Note that the drift current does not depend on the particles charge, just on their mass.
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  • Adiabatic invariants 1
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  • Adiabatic invariants 1I
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  • Adiabatic invariants III
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  • First invariant
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  • Magnetic bottle and loss cone
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  • Second invariant Fermi acceleration
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  • Third invariant drift shell orbits
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  • nonadiabatic examples 1. shock transition 2. inhomogeneous E
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  • Coulomb collisions
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  • runaway
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  • 1. Charged particle in a planar electromagnetic wave (relativistic) a) linear polarization b) circular polarization 2. Van Allen belt currents 3. Curvature drift in pulsars 4. Gyroradii of cosmic rays near Earth