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  2. 2. J 1 W WK K ? ? ? ? K K K
  3. 3. J 2 W :1.1 :2.1 :3.1 :4.1 :5.1 W. :1.2 :2.2 :5.2 :6.2KK :7.2 :8.2 :9.2K :10.2W 11.3W :11.2 :12.2W WK :1.3
  4. 4. J 3 :2.3K :3.3 :4.3 :5.3 :6.3 :7.3 :8.3WK W :1.4 :2.4 :3.4 :4.4 :5.4K :6.4W W :1.5 :2.5K :3.5K :4.5 :5.5K :6.5K :7.5W W :1.6
  5. 5. J 4 :2.6K :3.6 :4.6W WK :1.7 :2.7 :3.7 :4.7 3.7.1W 3.7.2W :3.7.3 3.7.4 3.7.5 3.7.6 :4.7W :5.7W
  6. 6. J 5 K FE F E F E K K K K
  7. 7. J 6
  8. 8. J 7 W K W W K K K K K W 90%K W K W K W K
  9. 9. J 8 :1.1W K W K K K K :2.1W F KE : 3.1W KStatic loadingFE KDynamic loadingFE KRepeated loadingFE : 4.1W KWKKK K W KKK
  10. 10. J 9 :5.1W K :1.5.1W W J K JUniversal testing machines K JSpecial testing machines K W W JK JK FAccessoriesE FGripsEK W K1.1FKE K FScrew-gearE K FE1.1FKE
  11. 11. J 10 K FHydraulic KE 1.1FKE W KK KK KK KK K FValvesEK :2.5.1W J K J{ K JFKE JK JK JK
  12. 12. J 11 1.1WFWWEFWE FWEK
  13. 13. J 12 1.2WW
  14. 14. J 13 FE K W FE K K K K K K K K FE ???? K
  15. 15. J 14
  16. 16. J 15 W W K W W K K K KKK K W 100%K W K W K W K
  17. 17. J 16 :1.2W K K :2.2W F E K 00 d10L 00 A3.11L 00 d5L 00 A65.5L :AoK :LoK 1.2WK
  18. 18. J 17 :3.2W W J Pin end J Shouldered end J Threaded end J Plain end J Circular end :4.2FE: FEK W 2.2WK 3.2W
  19. 19. J 18 :5.2W JK JK JK JK :6.2W W JFormW FE FKE JTextureW FSilkyEFFine GrainE FCoarse grainE FFibrousE FCrystallineE FGlassyEK JColorW FBrightEFDarkEK )1()2( )3()4( 4.2WK
  20. 20. J 19 W K K K 5.2WK :7.2FWE K K FDuctile materialE FSemi ductile materialE FE
  21. 21. J 20 :8.2W StressFEWFFE FAoEK 0 A F StrainFeWE FLEFLoEK 0 L L e AoLo K {W ) (
  22. 22. J 21 :9.2Mechanical Properties JProportional Limit K JElastic Limit K JYield StressW K 0 y y A F JFEModulus of Elasticitys Modulus) (Young K e E {W
  23. 23. J 22 JModulus of Resilience ( R ) K ZCK FZLEXF( 1/2 F ZAo x Lo 002 1 LA L FR W JF( FFLKE JK J J( T )Modulus of Toughness K K FLE 00 maxy LA2 L)FF( T 8.2W
  24. 24. J 23 JMaximum Tensile Strength K 0 Max UTS A F JDuctility FElongationEFReduction of areaE 100% 0 Lf LL Elongation f Reduction of area % 100 A AA 0 f0 JProof Stress K K 0A Fproof proof
  25. 25. J 24 W J J J J{ Proof 2.9W
  26. 26. J 25 :10.2WK :1.10.2W FLoadE FElongationEFStressEFStrainE K :2.10.2W JK JK JK JK JK :3.10.2W K K K K K K K
  27. 27. J 26 :4.10.2W Do = mm Lo = mm df = mm Lf = mm FkNEF FL(mm K :5.10.2W F KEK 5.10.3WW W JK JK JK JK JK JK JK JK
  28. 28. J 27 FE K W FE K K K K K K K K FE ???? K
  29. 29. J 28
  30. 30. J 29 W K W W K K K FKE W 90%K W K W K W K
  31. 31. J 30 :1.3W K K W JK JFRelatively UnstableE K JFFrictionE K J KW K K :2.3W K {K
  32. 32. J 31 :3.3W KK K K FBuckling E K K K :4.3W W WF JE K WFEK WF{EFBearing metalsE K
  33. 33. J 32 :5.3W JK JK JK {W {W
  34. 34. J 33 :6.3W ?Barrel? K :1.6.3FWE K 0 A F :2.6.3FWE K 0 Max Max A F :3.6.3FWE K 0 Max Max A F
  35. 35. J 34 :7.3W K 3.3W 4.3W
  36. 36. J 35 :8.3WWK :1.8.3W K :2.8.3W JK JK JK :3.8.3W JK J K J{L K K J K
  37. 37. J 36 :4.8.3W FEFE FE FE J :5.8.3W K
  38. 38. J 37 FE K W FE K K K K K K K K FE ???? K
  39. 39. J 38
  40. 40. J 39 W K W W K F KE K KKK W 90%K W K W K W K
  41. 41. J 40 :1.4W MtFE Pe 1.4K 1.4WK Mt = P e :2.4W :3.4W
  42. 42. J 41 K 2.4K 2.4WK :4.4W Mt K FMtEK &7