Εισαγωγη Γεωδαιτικης Αστρονομιας

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    360-A

    . ...

    2006

  • (Geodetic Astronomy) .. .

    ,

    .

    ,

    ,

    ().

    ,

    ..., .

    ,

    , ..:

    . ( ) . ( ) . (. . ) .

    .

    , 2006

    . ...

  • 1

    1. 3

    2. 15

    3. 21

    4. 25

    5. 37

    6. 45

    7. 63

    8. 69

    9. 73

    10. 77

    : 81

    87

  • 1

    (Geodetic Astronomy) (Positional Astronomy) , , ( ) . , , .

    ( ) (.. ).

    . , , , , . , () (x, y, z), () (, , h). , , , , .

    , , , . () (X, Y, Z), . (, ) , . : ( ) .

    , , . . , , , , . () , .

    ( ),

  • 2

    . , , (, ).

    ( ) , .

    , .

    , , .

    , , .

  • 3

    1.

    1.1 , () . , , , .

    , . , . , , . .

    :

    (Coordinate frame) () ( ) .

    (Coordinate system) . .

    (Reference system) . ( ) , , , .

    (Reference frame) (fiducial points) , . . .

    (Epoch of reference) . ,

  • 4

    . (Julian Date).

    , . ( ). () ( ) ( ) . , .

    .

    . . .. . , . .

    , . .

    . , . , . , , .

    1.2 . , , . . , . ()

  • 5

    . .

    1.1

    1.1 P . P (). S P, . .

    1.3 (Celestial Reference System) . . . . ( ) (North Pole) , (South Pole). , .

  • 6

    (celestial Equator) . ( ) (hour circles) . , .

    , , , . (ecliptic). 23.5 ( obliquity of the ecliptic) , , , (E) (E) (vernal & autumnal equinox). , , .

    1.2

    E ( - vernal equinox first point of Aries). (right ascension) ( E) (, ). ( , ) ,

  • 7

    0h 24h. , ( ).

    (declination) , ( ). , 0 +90 ( ) 0 90 ( ).

    ( , , , ) (International Celestial Reference System). (ICR Frame), J2000 ( ) (,) (quasars) , , .

    1.4 . , E. , 0 360. , 0 90 ( ) 0 90 .

    , ( ).

    1.5 ( ) (astronomical reference system). , . , . (meridians) (Greenwich) (prime meridian).

  • 8

    , , , , , ( ) , - . (direction of the vertical), () . (zenith) (nadir). , , .

    . () (deflection of the vertical) .

    . (astronomical longitude) ( ) . , 0 360. , ( ).

    (astronomical latitude) , ( ). , 0 +90 0 90 .

    1.3

  • 9

    . ( ) . E ( ), ( ) . .

    1.6

    (ideal terrestrial system) , . . . , - .

    (International Terrestrial Reference System), :

    1. .

    2. 1900-1905 (CIO Conventional International Origin).

    3. Greenwich - .

    , () . (International Terrestrial Reference Frame). ITRF (x,y,z) , (.. GPS, SLR, LLR, DORIS) (.. VLBI) .

    , ITRS ICRS (Earth Orientation Parameters) .

  • 10

    1.7 (horizon system) , . , .

    , . , , (astronomical horizon) . ( ) (vertical circles). . , (astronomical meridian) .

    (astronomical azimuth) ( ) -. , 0 360 ( ). , ( ).

    1.4

  • 11

    (altitude) , ( ). , 0 +90 ( ) 0 90 ( ). -, , z (zenith distance or zenith angle), . , 0 180 . , , : z = 90 - .

    . :

    1) , ( , ).

    2) , .

    , .

    , :

    (prime vertical).

    . : (North) = 0 (South) = 180 , (East) = 90 (West) = 270 , .

    1.8 , . , , , . (hour angle system). , . , ,

  • 12

    , . , .

    h (hour angle) ( ) . , 0h 24h. , ( ).

    , . , , . , , .

    1.5

    1) : 2 , , 360 400g 24h. ( , )

    2) , , : , , .

  • 13

    3) : , , . .

    y (,

    ).

    y , .

    y ( ) . ( ) . .

    y () , (, ) () 1.

    y , , . (, ) () 2.

    y ( ) ( ) ( ) .

    y . (, ) . , () , .

    y , (h, ), , . .

    1 , , (precession),

    . 2 ,

    (polar motion).

  • E (

    )

    Greenwich

    =

    Z =

    1 (1) . (1) (2) h (2) 2 . (3)

    | = 90

    -

    : (1) () (2) () (3) z = 90

    1

    4

  • 15

    2.

    , , ( constellations) . . , , , , ( ).

    , . , ( ) 50 . , , , .

    . , , . , .

    - , , , .

    , (.. ) , ( ). , , , , - . , , . , : , .

    - , () .

    . (

  • 16

    ) ( ), .

    , , , ( ) . , (rising) , (setting) . , , , ( ) . , ( ). , , , , . , , .

    2.1

    . , . ( upper transit)

  • 17

    . ( lower transit) . , , . , , .

    2.1, 1 , 2 3 4 . 2 R, S.

    . , , , , , .

    . , . ( 1 2.2), , , , . P T1, ( ).

    2.2

  • 18

    ( 2 2.2), T2 P Z. , . , , ( 2.3). , ( ) , , .

    2.3

    1) ,

    2) : ) ) ( )

    3) , : ) ) ( )

  • 19

    y ( )

    .

    y , . y , ,

    .

    y .

    y ( ) , . , , .

    y , , , - ( ). , , ( ).

  • 20

  • 21

    3.

    , , -, . , . , - . .

    :