Поиск информации в сети Internet. Методические указания к курсу ''Компьютерные методы в современном естествознании

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  • . . , . . , . .

    " Internet"

    " -

    ."

    -- 2001 .

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    4 17.04.2001. : .. , . . . , .. 5 . . . , . . , . . "

    Internet" " - ." --: , 2001 .

    - Internet. - (Yahoo, Alta Vista, Rambler, ndex). , - " ". Internet, .

    .

    2

  • 1. Internet

    1. 1. Internet ,

    . .

    , - (). . --, . -- , . , - , .

    , -- Internet TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol / ). TCP , IP , . . , - .

    TCP http (hypertext transfer protocol (- )), ftp (file transfer protocol ( -)) . ., Internet (Web-), . . -, , , - Web-.

    , Internet, IP-. -. IP- , - . , , 0 255 (, 147.120.3.28 . .). . , - , (host). "" , TCP/IP .

    3

  • 1.2. , -

    IP- - (domain host name). , - , . 122 (2001 .), : phys.rnd.runnet.ru. (phys) -, (rnd) ( Rostov-on-Don), - (runnet) Internet (, Internet !) (ru) (Russia). , - .

    . IP- , . . , , , - Web-. ,

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    edu ;

    org , - , . -, - (, www.aps.org -- (American Physical Society, APS);

    com ( ). ,

    . , ru, uk, de, it . .

    , . . , - , , (). .

    , , , , - .

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    4

  • Domain Name System (DNS ). , IP- . DNS - IP-, .

    1.3. URL- URL- -

    Internet. , Internet , (IP-), ( ). , -, . , . - , - .

    (, , - , ) - , URL (Universal Resource Locator ). URL .

    , . . , URL -:

    ://_//_ , , ,

    (://). _ ,

    . ,

    . -(/).

    _ (), . . Web- html, , , pdf, - gif, jpeg (), wav, au (), avi () . .

    URL- . , , . - Internet-, (WWW World Wide Web), .

    5

  • , , . , , , . . , - Web-, . , . , - , , Web- URL-, - .

    , Brigham Young University (BYU) : http://www.byu.edu. home page , (, , ) . - Web- , -, . -, . URL , - .

    URL-: , @. - , , . , . , BYU Harold Stokes e-mail- stokesh@landau.byu.edu. - @ landau . , . . .

    1.4. ( . browse ) -

    Internet, , WWW- , .

    , Netscape Navigator (NN) Netscape Communications ( Netscape Communicator) Internet Explorer (IE) Microsoft. , - . Internet Explorer .

    , Windows, , -

    6

  • . , - Location (), URL-. - . Fail (), Edit () View () , Windows. , File () - - ( , ).

    URL- Web-. - , - , ( , . .).

    Web- - URL - Web- . , - Web-.

    , , , - Go (). , - Web-. , - . Back () Forward () , Web- .

    Web- Save as ( ) File () -. Web- , File () Edit Page (), Save File as ( ). , Web- . , , , , .

    Web- (. File ()). Windows. , Web-, .

    Web- - Stop ().

    7

  • Web-, , - () Web-, , , . Internet - KOI8-R, Unix. - Windows , - Windows1251.

    IE , . , , - .

    , -, NN Preferences Edit, IE .

    (History) Internet - . , - , , URL-. , , . - Bookmarks () NN Favorites ( ) IE . , - .

    , . , - Add Bookmark NN , - IE , URL- Bookmarks (). Copy Link Location Windows , - - , , - Web-. , - Edit Bookmarks Bookmarks. , Bookmarks -, , .

    8

  • 2. Internet ,

    . , - ( ). , " - ", ndex. , Internet, , , (WWW). - (Web-) - , Internet, , , -, .

    -. (-, Yahoo!) (, AltaVista), - , - "", . - () Web-, , Web-, .

    , , , : , .

    - Web-, Internet . Internet - ( ), , , , . ., - Web- . - , () , .

    , "" : Science () - Physics () - Theoretical Physics ( ) - Theories () - String Theories ( )

    9

  • , - Superstrings!. Superstrings!, home page , , on-line , , ..

    , "- " Web-. - , , , - - Web- ( 1 %). , - , - .

    , - -, -, - Internet- () - Web-. - , - - Web-. Web- - , , (URL) , . , , , , Web- . , - 25 % Web-.

    - . , -, - Web-, ( ). , : -, . . , - .

    - , , , , , - Web-. -

    10

  • , . .

    , Web-. , -- - "Fermi-Pasta-Ulam" ( , FPU), - . , "Ivanov" , , , .

    , , . -, -, , Web-, "Chechin war, chechin terrorists" . .

    - , - .

    , , (, Yahoo!) - () .

    -. , Internet. , , , . ., , , . , , Rambler.

    3. ( )

    . - . Web- , . - .

    11

  • , , , . , , - 2000 . . -

    Alferov , - .

    Zhorez Alferov, , , -. "" (OR) ( Yahoo, AltaVista . .). Zhorez Alferov , , , , : , Zhorez, Alferov, .

    - , - :

    "Zhorez Alferov". , , -

    (Alferov Zhorez), , - .

    , Web-, , . ,

    +Zhorez +Alferov Web-, Zhorez, Alferov, , - ( ).

    , , . , , ,

    ++- , -

    , (, -

    12

  • , . .). - , , : , - (, OF), .

    , , " - ...", - ()

    ++*-* (1) (*) -

    .

    , (1), "" .

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    Web-, . Web-, : AltaVista title:, Yahoo! t: Rambler $ title:, . .

    4. -

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    , - , . - OR, AND, NOT, NEAR -

    13

  • . , .

    , - (., , - 2!). , - -.

    , - , bushes of normal modes ( ) . .

    OR ( "") , . ,

    bush OR modes , bush, modes, .

    AND ( "") , - , . , - - . ,

    bush AND modes AltaVista - , - . " "(!), , , .

    NOT , Web-, ( , , "" ).

    NEAR ( , ) . . , AltaVista , -. NEAR - , - , , .

    14

  • bush NEAR modes , , , . , Web- : "Bushes of normal modes..".

    NEAR

    , , . . , - NEAR -, , , , , .

    , . -, - :

    (Rostov-on-Don and University) and (physics OR mathematics) Web-,

    Rostov-on-Don, University physics mathematics. . , - , -- -, , ( , - ).

    - Web-, , - . ., - Internet. , - Yahoo ( ) AltaVista ( -), [1,2] , , - (Help).

    1 - , - Yahoo, AltaVista Rambler Yandex.

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  • 5. Yahoo Yahoo

    http://www.yahoo.com. ,

    . , Netscape Communicator Yahoo Yahoo, - .

    Yahoo (. . 1) - Web- , "Search" (""), - (), .

    , , Web-

    , .

    , Yahoo, , : , . .

    Yahoo , (More Yahoo!s), , (News), , , (Weather) . .

    URL- -, "Location".

    Yahoo , . 20 , , , "Search". - ( - OR AND), . .

    , . Substrings Yahoo , , , , "art" () - "department" (, . .). Substrings, (. ., "-s"), . . , Complete Words -

    16

  • , .

    . 1. Yahoo Yahoo

    Y! Bill Pay

    view and pay bills online [] My Yahoo!

    create your own

    Searchadvanced search

    Auctions - buy/sell anything - Ichiro Suzuki, PlayStation 2, coins, Longaberger, camera