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Engineering & System Science Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-Phase Flow Lab. 邁邁邁邁邁邁邁邁邁邁邁邁邁 NUCLEAR POWER DEVELOPMENT TOWARD A SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SOURCE Chin Pan Department of Engineering and System Science National Tsing Hua University Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC Presented at College of Engineering National Cheng Kung University Apirl 8, 2013

邁向永續能源的核能技術發展 NUCLEAR POWER DEVELOPMENT TOWARD A SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SOURCE

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邁向永續能源的核能技術發展 NUCLEAR POWER DEVELOPMENT TOWARD A SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SOURCE. Chin Pan Department of Engineering and System Science National Tsing Hua University Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC Presented at College of Engineering National Cheng Kung University Apirl 8, 2013. OULLINE. Introduction - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of 邁向永續能源的核能技術發展 NUCLEAR POWER DEVELOPMENT TOWARD A SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SOURCE

1NUCLEAR POWER DEVELOPMENT TOWARD A SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SOURCE
Chin Pan
National Tsing Hua University
OULLINE
Introduction
Principles of Nuclear Power
Nuclear Power Systems
Fourth Generation Nuclear Power Plants– Development of Nuclear Power toward a Sustainable Energy Source
Conclusions
Background
Concentration of CO2 has been increased by 16% over the past half century mainly due to the burning of fossil fuels
From: Fuel Cells, Green Power, U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
From:F.S. Hsu, 2005, “The Energy Problem at a Glance”
Engineering & System Science
Global Warming and Climate Change?
From: Fuel Cells, Green Power, U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
Engineering & System Science
Countermeasures: Renewables and Nuclear Energy
Engineering & System Science
Renewables and Nuclear Power Produce Much Less CO2
Engineering & System Science
Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-Phase Flow Lab.
From: Mujid S. Kazimi, “Nuclear Power Innovations For Enhanced Economy and Safety”, Presented at NTHU, Dec, 8, 2004
Engineering & System Science
NEA (BLUE-MAP)
2050 CO2(57Gt)2005(14Gt)
CCS:20%; renewables:16%; Nuclear Power: 6%; power generation efficiency and fuel switching:5%; end use fuel switching:15%; end-use fuel and electricity efficiency:38%
370 GWe (14%) 20501250 GWe(24%) , 300%.
2020201500 GWe204020-30
*

Nuclear Power in the World
436 nuclear power units in operation
With total installation capacity of about 370.5 GWe
Provide about 15% of electricity
62units under construction and much more under planning
From: IAEA PRIS 2012/05/09
16 units in operation ( 11.8 GWe) providing 1.8% electricity
26 units under construction(26.6 GWe)
Policy (2006): from adequate to aggressive development
Nuclear power installation reaching 40-80 GWe in 2020 (about 40 -80 units)
200 GWe in 2050, possibly a largest nuclear power country, providing 12.5% of electricity
Complete design of third generation PWR by 2006(?)
Aggressive sodium-cooled FBR program: 25 MWe CEFR by 2008; 600MWe by 2020; 1000~1500 MWe by 2030 ~ 2035
10 MW High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor and nuclear hydrogen at Tsing Hua University, Beijing
Engineering & System Science
-


















47
2010
12
:
6 units in operation (4 BWRs + 2 PWRs)
Providing about 20% of electricity (8% of energy)
2 units (4th nuclear power plant) under construction
The four existing sites may accommodate 11-12 more units
Engineering & System Science
Principles of Nuclear Power
Atomic and Nuclear Structure
FromR.L. Murray, Nuclear Energy-An Introduction to the Concepts, Systems and Applications of Nuclear Process, 2nd Ed., Pergamon Press, 1980
For 92U235:
92 protons &
143 neutrons
Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-Phase Flow Lab.
Binding Energy per Nucleon as a Function of Atomic Mass Number
From: J. R. Lamarsh, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering
For example: the binding energy per unit nucleon
for 92U235 can be calculated as:
(92×1.00728 +143×1.00867- 235.0439)amu ×931Mev/amu÷235=7.39 Mev
Engineering & System Science



Example of Fission Reaction of U-235
mass defect
E = M C2
Energy corresponding to the mass defect of a fission reaction
of U-235 =0.20793 amu × 931 Mev/amu =200 Mev
The energy released by fission reactions is six order of common chemical reactions such as combustion of fossil fuels
Photograph from www.xtec.es
Engineering & System Science
Chain Reaction










80.5%
2.5%
2.5%
0.02%
3.0%
5.0%
3.0%
3.5%



1
1
1
1
30
90

(%)
6.2
3.7
1.5
0.61
0.14
0.073
0.024
Fuel Consumed Every Day for a 3000MWt Power Plant
Fuel
Boiling Heat Transfer and Multi-Phase Flow Lab.
Annual Fuel Transportations Needed for the 4th Nuclear Power Plant in Taiwan (1300 MWe × 2)
1.78 × 1010 kW-h
Conversion and Breeding
Isotope Abundance(%)
U234 0.0057
U235 0.72
U238 99.27


From: C. K. Shih


Fuel Pellets, Fuel Rods, Fuel Assembly and Reactor
From: Nuclear Power in an Age of Uncertainty
From: J. R. Lamarsh, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering
Engineering & System Science
From: C. K. Shih
Schematic of a Boiling Water Reactor
From: Nuclear Power in an Age of Uncertainty
Engineering & System Science
Nuclear Safety
Defense in Depth
Engineering & System Science
Emergency Core Cooling Systems in a Mark-III containment with BWR-6
From: R. T. Lahey & F. J. Moody, The Thermal
Hydraulics of Boiling Water Nuclear Reactor
The core melt frequency for present nuclear power plants is in the order of 10-5/yr
Engineering & System Science
Multiple Barriers for Radiation



(2)




70.4g

:






0.3g
0.4g
0.4g
0.4g

14.8
16.2
11.3
26


:

:

*

(ECW)()
EOPSAMPLine-up

:






()
:






b:

Chinshan, Kuoshang and Maanshan produce about 40, 50 and 45 MTU annually.
Interim dry storage for Chinshan has been under construction by a domestic team
Atomic Energy Council has approved “the final disposal of spent fuel plan” submitted by Taipower company in July 2007.
According to this plan, the final disposal site will start operation in 2055. Moreover, Taipower should review and revise the plan every four years to assure the plan meeting the domestic needs and international trends.
unit
(assembly) 
assembly
MTU
assembly
MTU
assembly
MTU
CHINSHAN

3,083
2,770
476
3,812
680.4
5,372
958.9

3,083
2,636
454
3,788
676.2
5,348
954.6
KUOSHENG 
1
5,026
3,668
616
5,732
1023.2
8,072
1440.9
2
5,026
3,716
624
5,800
1035.3
8,140
1453.0
MAANSHAN 

2,151
1,123
451
1,911
797.8
2,891
1207.0

2,159
1,141
457
2,001
835.4
2,911
1215.3
Longmen

7,372
1332.9
10,622
1920.5

7,372
1332.9
10,622
1920.5
total
3078
7714.0
11070.6
Abnormal events and Scrams Decreased exponentially
Total NO. of Scram
Maanshan power plant
Kaosheng power plant
Chinshen power plant
NT$/kW-Hr (1 US$ = 33 NT$)
Data provided by TPC
Volume of low-level solid radioactive waste reduced exponentially using domestic technology
1977 1980 1990 2000 2008
Using the technology developed by INER,
the number of barrels of solid low-level waste
has been reduced exponentially.
Data provided by TPC



Generation IV Nuclear Energy System
Development Project
Generation IV International Forum (GIF), 2005/2/28, including Canada, France, Japan, UK and USA
Further advances in nuclear energy system design to broaden the opportunities for the use of nuclear energy
From:Y. Sagayama, Proc.Global 2005
GOALS FOR GENERATION IV
Sustainbility-1:clean air; long-term availability of systems; effective fuel utilization
Sustainbility-2: minimize and manage their nuclear waste and notably reduce the long-term stewardship burden; thereby improving protection for the public health and the environment
Proliferation resistance and physical protection: increase the assurance that they are a very unattractive and the least desirable route for diversion or theft of weapons-usable materials, and provide increased physical protection against acts of terrorism.
Engineering & System Science
GOALS FOR GENERATION IV (cont’d)
Economics: have a clear life-cycle cost advantage over other energy sources;
Economics-2: have a level of financial risk comparable to other energy projects
Safety and reliability-1: excel in safety and reliability
Safety and reliability-2: have a very low likelihood and degree of reactor core damage
Safety and reliability-3: eliminate the need for offsite emergency response
Engineering & System Science
Six Candidate Nuclear Energy Systems
Very-high-temperature gas-cooled reactor
Very-high-temperature gas-cooled reactor
From: Mujid S. Kazimi, “Nuclear Power Innovations For Enhanced Economy and Safety”, Presented at NTHU, Dec, 8, 2004
Engineering & System Science
Sodium-cooled fast reactor
From: Mujid S. Kazimi, “Nuclear Power Innovations For Enhanced Economy and Safety”, Presented at NTHU, Dec, 8, 2004
Engineering & System Science
MSR: Molten Salt Nuclear Reactor
MSR (From: C. W. Forsberg, “Thermal-and Fast-spectrum Molten Salt Reactors for Actinide Burning and Fuel Production,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory, ANS Manuscript Number 175768, 2007.)
Engineering & System Science
Spent Fuel Management
From: Mujid S. Kazimi, “Nuclear Power Innovations For Enhanced Economy and Safety”, Presented at NTHU, Dec, 8, 2004
Engineering & System Science
Summary of Gen VI Reactors
From: Prof. S. H. Jiang
Engineering & System Science
Conclusions
Nuclear power can be and has been developing toward a sustainable energy source: inherently very low CO2 emission; waste minimization and maximum use of uranium resources; proliferation resistant; co-generation of hydrogen.
Nuclear power plays an important role for current and future energy need.
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24
20
14
7
13
9
8
55
8
4
2
3
4
1
3
222
1
2
3
412
1
2
0
5
10
15
20
25
198919901991199219931994199519961997199819992000200120022003200420052006200720082009
38.96
38.3
35.4
34.9
33.9
33.5
33.0
32.5
37.9
37.4
38.0
34.1
37.0
36.9
36.3
38.4
39.26
39.98
89.01
90.28
88.93
87.94
86.98
79.78
87.06
84.52
82.32
81.07
82.72
76.79
76.57
75.09
85.98
78.07
87.95
92.17
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
199219931994199519961997199819992000200120022003200420052006200720082009
70
75
80
85
90