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1.HCG Hormone 2.Estradiol 3.prolactin. (Pregnancy hormone)

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Applications on RIA assaysHCG HormoneEstradiolprolactin

HCG hormone

(Pregnancy hormone)2

Clinical InformationHuman chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a glycoprotein hormone consisting of 2 noncovalently bound subunits. with an (alpha) subunit identical to that of (LH), (FSH), (TSH), and (beta) subunit that is unique to hCG.It is early produced by the cells that surround the growing human embryo; these cells will eventually go on to form the placenta and later it is made by the placenta during pregnancy. B-HCG False +ve thyroid gland3

HCG Functions1. HCG hormone is an embryonic hormone helps the embryo implant in the uterus.2. Maintains the production of progesterone by the corpus luteum and the ovaries during the first trimester of pregnancy. 3. Causes the blockage of any immune or macrophage action by the mother , protecting the fetus during the first trimester.4. Suppresses any myometrial contractions during the course of pregnancy5. Play a role in the growth and differentiation of the umbilical cordin the event that the ovulated egg is fertilised by sperm and an embryo is conceived, it is vital that the corpus luteum continues to produce progesterone until the placenta is established (the placenta then takes over progesterone production).It isimportant that the corpus luteum keeps producing progesterone because loss of progesterone leads to shedding of the womb lining (menstruation), which would prevent an embryofrom implanting.

HCG hormone repel the immune cells of the mother due to its highly negative charge4

Natural PregnancyThe HCG levels starts to enter the blood stream within 8 to 11 days after conception and continues to increase until the 16th week of last menstrual period . While the HCG levels keep fluctuating until around the 8th week, by the 9th or 10th week, it tends to double and reaches its peak and then declines for the remainder of the pregnancy .

The chart illustrates the normal rise and fall of hCG levels throughout pregnancy. This is why pregnancy test may reveal as negative on the early weeks and become positive a few weeks later.Beta hCG can be detected in maternal plasma or urine by 8 to 9 days after ovulation.

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-HCG & other hormones

HCG TestWhy the test is done?Confirming pregnancy.To diagnose abnormal conditions, such as molar pregnancy, ectopic pregnancy, early pregnancy miscarriage, and certain types of ovarian tumors or in men with testicular tumors.To assess the progress of the pregnancy.To certify the health of both mom and the baby.

molar pregnancy, ectopic pregnancy, early pregnancy miscarriage, and multiple pregnancy. These cases usually displayed by the lack of HCG development and thus, it can be treated as early as possible to ensure a healthy pregnancy. 7

The test can be either qualitative or quantitative1st, Qualitative HCG Blood Test A qualitative beta-hCG test confirms the presence or absence of hCG in the blood . This test only confirms if a woman is pregnant or not. HCG levels of 25 mIU/mL and more is usually detected by this method.HCG urine tests This test may be performed by a laboratory, at a doctor's office, or at home using a home pregnancy test kit. Methods will vary slightly but for most, a test strip is dipped into a collected cup of urine or exposed to a woman's urine stream. A colored line (or other color change) appears within the time allotted per instructions, usually about 5 minutes.

Pregnancy stripsIf the test is negative, it is often repeated several days later. Since hCG rises rapidly, an initial negative test can turn positive within this time period.

The hCG test can give both false-negative results and false-positive results for pregnancy. the doctor will help to figure out the results or to do follow-up testing if theres any doubt.

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2nd, Quantitative HCG Blood TestA quantitative beta-hCG test measures the exact amount of hCG in the blood,it is a very sensitive test for pregnancy since very small amounts of hCG can be detected even as low as 1 mIU/mL. This test is not done routinely and is not necessary in all pregnancies.

The test may be offered by the doctor to assess one of these condition :too early in pregnancy when theres doubt in confirming the result .Implantation cases.Severe back pain in a pregnant womenAbnormal vaginal bleedingRisk of miscarriage

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Facts about hCG levelsIn 85% of normal pregnancies, the hCG level will double every 48 72 hours.An hCG level of less than 5mIU/ml is considerednegative for pregnancy, and anything above 25mIU/ml is consideredpositive for pregnancy.The hCG levels should not be used to date apregnancy, since these numbers can vary so widelyA single hCG reading is not enough in some diagnoses. When there is a question regarding the healthof the pregnancy, multiple testings of hCG done a couple of daysapart give a more accurate assessment of the situation.every womans level of hCG can rise differently. It is not necessarily the level that matters, but rather the change in the level10

High levels of hCG A high level of hCG can also mean a number of things and shouldbe rechecked within 48-72 hours to evaluate changes in the level.A rise in hCG levels above the reference range can indicate :Miscalculation of pregnancy datingMolar pregnancy (Hydatidiform mole)Multiple pregnancya tumor of the testicles or ovariesSome types of cancer, such as cancer of the stomach, pancreas , large intestine, liver, or lung.

hCG levels in weeks from LMP (gestational age)* :3 weeks LMP: 5 50 mIU/ml4 weeks LMP: 5 426 mIU/ml5 weeks LMP: 18 7,340 mIU/ml6 weeks LMP: 1,080 56,500 mIU/ml7 8 weeks LMP: 7, 650 229,000 mIU/ml9 12 weeks LMP: 25,700 288,000 mIU/ml13 16 weeks LMP: 13,300 254,000 mIU/ml17 24 weeks LMP: 4,060 165,400 mIU/ml25 40 weeks LMP: 3,640 117,000 mIU/mlThe normal values listed here-called a reference range-are just a guide. These ranges vary from lab to lab

The values that falls outside the normal values listed here may still be normal for some pregnant or other lab.

11Molar pregnancy (Hydatidiform mole)A molar pregnancy is an unsuccessful pregnancy, where the placenta and fetus do not form properly, and a baby does not develop.In a molar pregnancy, the trophoblastic cells behave abnormally as soon as the egg has been fertilised by the sperm. This results in a mass of abnormal cells that cangrow asfluid-filled sacs (cysts) with the appearance of white grapes. These cells grow rapidlywithin the womb, instead of developing into a baby. The abnormal cells are referred to as a "mole", which is from the Latin for mass or lump and it is a pre-cancerous form of gestational trophoblastic disease

Molar pregnancy = The placenta is made up of millions of cells known as trophoblastic cells.

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A molar pregnancy can't continue as a normal viable pregnancy. To prevent complications, the molar tissue must be removed. Treatment usually consists of one or more of the following: Dilation and curettage (D&C) or Hysterectomy.

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/molar-pregnancy/basics/treatment/con-2003441313

Low values of HCGlow levels of -hCG means :In an early pregnancy as estimated by the last menstrual period (LMP).An ectopic pregnancyDeath of the babyMiscarriage (spontaneous abortion) is very likely.

Ectopic pregnancyAn ectopic pregnancy occurs when a fertilized egg implants somewhere other than the main cavity of the uterus.If this occurs in one of the tubes that carry eggs from the ovaries to the uterus (fallopian tubes). This type of ectopic pregnancy is known as a tubal pregnancy. In some cases, however, an ectopic pregnancy occurs in the abdominal cavity, ovary or neck of the uterus (cervix).

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An ectopic pregnancy can't proceed normally, also the growing tissue might destroy various maternal structures. A fertilized egg can't develop normally outside the uterus. To prevent life-threatening complications, the ectopic tissue needs to be removed.In some cases, medication may be used to stop the growth of pregnancy tissue. The doctor will monitor HCG levels after surgery to be sure all of the ectopic tissue was removed. If HCG levels don't come down quickly, an injection of methotrexate may be needed.

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/ectopic-pregnancy/basics/treatment/con-2002426216Estradiol(E2)

Estradiol The term "estrogen" includes a group of chemically similar hormones: estrone, estradiol (the most abundant in women of reproductive age) and estriol.Estradiol is the most commonly measured type of estrogen for nonpregnant women. In women, most estradiol is released from the ovaries and adrenal glands and fat tissues, It is also released by the placenta during pregnancy.In men, a small amount of estradiol is mainly released by the testis, preventing sperm from dying too early.

Estrogen is partly responsible for creating healthy sperm. When estrogen levels are high, sperm levels in semen may fall. This can lead to fertility issueestrone (E1)Estriol (E3)18

Estradiol function1. Responsible for the growth and development of female sexual characteristics.2. Supporting the lining of vagina, cervical glands, the endometrium and fallopian tubes.3. Prepare the endometrium for implantation.4. Regulates a womans menstrual cycle5. Regulate the livers production of cholesterol6. Also, it helps to preserve bone density

During the menstrual cycle, leutinizing hormone surge, inducing ovulation

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When is the test ordered?Help diagnose early-onset puberty or delayed pubertyInvestigate menstrual abnormalities, such as amenorrhea, infertility, and abnormal vaginal bleedingEvaluate the

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