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# Chapter 5 Steady-State Sinusoidal Analysis. 5.1 Sinusoidal Currents and Voltages A sinusoidal voltage Peak value Phase angle( 相位 ) Angular frequency (

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• Appendix AComplex Numbers

Basic Complex-Number ConceptsComplex numbers involve the imaginary number() j = Z=x+jy has a real part () x and an imaginary part () y , we can represent complex numbers by points in the complex plane ()

The complex numbers of the form x+jy are in rectangular form ()

The complex conjugate () of a number in rectangular form is obtained by changing the sign of the imaginary part. For example if then the complex conjugate of is

Example A.1 Complex Arithmetic in Rectangular Form

Solution:

to rectangular form

Example A.1 Complex Arithmetic in Rectangular Form

Complex Numbers in Polar Form() Complex numbers can be expressed in polar form (). Examples of complex numbers in polar form are :The length of the arrow that represents a complex number Z is denoted as |Z| and is called the magnitude ( or ) of the complex number.

Using the magnitude |Z| , the real part x, and the imaginary part y form a right triangle ().

Using trigonometry, we can write the following relationships:

These equations can be used to convert numbers from polar to rectangular form.(A.3)(A.4)(A.1)(A.2)

Example A.2 Polar-to Rectangular Conversion

• Example A.3 Rectangular-to-Polar Conversion

The procedures that we have illustrated in Examples A.2 and A.3 can be carried out with a relatively simple calculator. However, if we find the angle by taking the arctangent of y/x, we must consider the fact that the principal value of the arctangent is the true angle only if the real part x is positive. If x is negative, we have:

Eulers IdentitiesThe connection between sinusoidal signals and complex number is through Eulers identities, which state that and

Another form of these identities is and

is a complex number having a real part of and an imaginary part of

The magnitude is

The angle of

A complex number such as can be written as

We call the exponential form ()of a complex number.

Given complex number can be written in three forms:The rectangular formThe polar formExponential form

Example A.4 Exponential Form of a Complex Number

Solution:

• Arithmetic Operations in Polar and Exponential FormTo add (or subtract) complex numbers, we must first convert them to rectangular form. Then, we add (or subtract) real part to real part and imaginary to imaginary.

Two complex numbers in exponential form:

The polar forms of these numbers are

• For multiplication of numbers in exponential form, we have

In polar form, this is

Proof:( )

Now consider division:

In polar form, this is

• Example A.5Complex Arithmetic in Polar Form

Solution:

Before we can add (or subtract) the numbers, we must convert them to rectangular form.

• The sum as Zs:

Convert the sum to polar form:

Because the real part of Zs is positive, the correct angle is the principal value of the arctangent.

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