Develop Your Influencing and Negotiation Skills ?· Develop Your Influencing and Negotiation Skills…

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  • Develop Your Influencing and Negotiation SkillsDevelop Your Influencing and Negotiation Skills

    Annette Bak, Joy Fuerst, John Naber, and Nathalie ToussaintMerck & Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA

    AAPS Professional Development San Diego, November 4th, 2014

  • Training Outline Definitions:

    What is a negotiation? What is influencing? National culture and negotiations MBTI and negotiations 4 key steps in a negotiation Essentials for negotiations Situations where a no may be appropriate;

    negotiating a no Breakout exercise

  • What Is Influencing?

    Influence is the ability to persuade someone to think or act in the way you want. This ability is an essential part of leadership It is a skill that is normally used in enticing

    an individual toward a specific course of action that they may not be inclined to follow

  • Why Do I Need Training on Influencing People?

    Influence is an essential part of leadership; but it is also valuable in everyday life Many of us work in a matrix environment

    with multiple bosses or cross departmental boundaries; this requires that we influence others who may not share the same goal or agree

  • What Is Negotiation? Negotiation itself is a careful exploration of your position and

    the other person's position, with the goal of finding a mutually acceptable compromise that gives you both as much of what you want as possible

    Resolve situations where what you have conflicts with someone elses interests With a aggressive approach, you could seek to overpower

    the other person to get what you want With a passive approach, you could simply give in to the

    other persons wishes

    There are different styles of negotiation, depending on circumstances

  • Situational Challenge 1: Negotiation & Influencing

    You are working on a department initiative, with a team made up of 5 people at 2 different sites. Your team has made outstanding progress and has

    been asked to present the results of the past years efforts at a face-to-face meeting with senior leadership

    Due to logistical and financial issues, only 3 people will be able to attend the meeting

    How does the team decide whowill attend the meeting?

  • Situational Challenge 2: Negotiation & Influencing

    You are the rep on program XYZ for Phase II clinical trial Your team is working to define timelines for clinical

    strategy and start dates for future studies The teams strategy is to lock in the commercial

    formulation composition in the next round of studies, but the team would like to expedite the studies faster than standard timelines would permit

    Is this a reasonable expectation? How do you align the team on what is

    best for program goals?

  • National Culture & Negotiations Case Study: A job application at an undisclosed American engineering

    company operating in the Netherlands A Dutch engineer applies for a junior management position

    The Dutch engineers background Degree from a good university, good grades, short tenure at Dutch

    engineering company Had written a short letter indicating interest and salient personal data

    The Dutch engineer was invited for an interview The Dutch engineer behaved politely and modestly, as an applicant

    should (in the Netherlands) The American plant manager interviewed on unexpected details of

    technical experience and tool design; discussed nothing of what the Dutch engineer expected

    Plant manager: Sorry we need a first-class man Why?

    Case study and cultural dimensions adapted from: http://geert-hofstede.com/national-culture.htmland Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, Third Edition.

  • National Culture & Negotiations

    Why did the Dutch engineer not get the position?

    Different expectations USA: Written and verbal communication assertive and achievement

    oriented (overselling) The Netherlands: Written and verbal communication modest and

    consensus driven (underselling)

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    USA High Mas Index (USA): Represents a preference in society for achievement, heroism, assertiveness, and material rewards for success. Society at large is more competitive. Low Mas Index (The Netherlands): Represents a preference for cooperation, modesty, caring for the weak, and quality of life. Society at large is more consensus-oriented.

    Case study and cultural dimensions adapted from: http://geert-hofstede.com/national-culture.htmland Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, Third Edition.

  • Cultural dimensions are interrelated

    Example: Determining scientific strategy for a project Danish manager with US team Danish manager with Chinese

    team

    National Culture & Negotiations

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    Power Distance Index (PDI): The degree to which the less powerful members of a society accept (High PDI) or does not accept (Low PDI) and expect that power is distributed unequally

    Individualism Index (IDV): The degree to which the society is oriented toward selves/immediate families (High IDV) or loyalty toward larger groups (Low IDV)

    Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI): The degree to which the members of a society feel uncomfortable (High UAI) or comfortable (Low UAI) with uncertainty and ambiguity

    Cultural dimensions adapted from: http://geert-hofstede.com/national-culture.htmlLink to: More intercultural negotiations resources

    This brief introduction covers a small subset of the cultural differences that may be encountered in a negotiationTake home message: Consider/research intercultural differences amongst parties in a negotiation

  • MBTI & Negotiations Why may MBTI and negotiations be related?

    Negotiation strategies require behaviors that many people may be adept with, but they may also require behaviors that many are not drawn to naturally

    In analyzing your own negotiating skill in the context of MBTI what specific behaviors do you use, or fail to use?

    Abbreviated MBTI, test was distributed Not a substitute for a full test with a certified instructor The full test can be purchased at several places online

    The Myers-Briggs Type Test 16 Personality Types Population Distribution

    Source: Peters, Don, Forever Jung Psychological Type Theory, The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Learning Negotiation, 42 Drake Law Review 1 (1993)

  • MBTI & Negotiations:Two Negotiation Tactics Adversarial: Gain maximizing

    Proceed in a linear fashion Negotiators attempt to induce, persuade, or deceive others into

    deviating from their positions Threats and attacks are used Inquiries regarding facts and issues are evaded or shared

    reluctantly Problem solving: Fair deal-making

    Involves a cognitive commitment to searching for fair solutions Flexible Non-linear First identifies underlying needs Looks for solutions that maximize potential for all parties Information is used to generate understanding about each others

    interestsSource: Peters, Don, Forever Jung Psychological Type Theory, The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Learning Negotiation, 42 Drake Law Review 1 (1993)

  • MBTI & Negotiations: Sensing/Intuitive The sensing/intuitive preference exerts the most influence on

    negotiations 80% of the general population are sensing; 20% intuitive

    Sensing tactics: adversarial Intuitive tactics: problem-solving

    Linear, structured, focusing on concrete, detailed, factual information

    Less structured multidimensional strategy

    Limited resources, single bargaining dimensions

    Identifying needs, interests, and solutions

    Well prepared; ask questions togather facts

    Abstract brain-storming for solutions

    Focus on settlement zones between articulated positions

    May not pay sufficient attention to details

    Deadlock can result if compromisecannot be reached

    Source: Peters D., Forever Jung Psychological Type Theory, The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Learning Negotiation, 42 Drake Law Review 1 (1993)

  • MBTI & Negotiations: Thinking/Feeling Thinkers/Feelers are split 50:50 in the general population

    Thinking tactics: adversarial Feeling tactics: problem-solving

    Emphasize logical and impersonal aspects of negotiation

    Prefer harmony, agreement, and against Win-Lose agreements

    Impersonal assertiveness Concerned about the relationship to negotiators

    Competition to maximum gain Good listeners can facilitate cooperation

    Difficult to incorporate legitimate interest of others

    Can be less effective against an adversarial opponent

    Can be prone to attacking May make undue concessions to avoid conflict and give in too easily

    Source: Peters D., Forever Jung Psychological Type Theory, The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Learning Negotiation, 42 Drake Law Review 1 (1993)

  • MBTI & Negotiations: Judging/Perceiving Judging/Perceiving split is 50:50 in the general population

    Judging tactics: adversarial Perceiving tactics: problem-solving

    Wants to make decisions and get things done

    Avoids commitment while advancing proposals and solutions

    Extensively prepares, plans, and schedules the negotiations

    Acts spontaneously - lack of planning

    Sticks to rightness of view in spite of empirical evidence

    Adept at generating alter