ECNU Educational Research 2016-09-22آ  ECNU Educational Research Methodology Five steps for systematic

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  • ECNU Educational Research Methodology

    •Reading assignment •Class PPT •Requirements/Assessments •Email for questions

    Getting started

    陈芳 华东师大英语系 Fang CHEN 2016/9/22 1

  • ECNU Educational Research Methodology

    A. characteristics of educational research B. The research process

    Lecture 1: Introduction

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  • ECNU Educational Research Methodology

     The general characteristics of educational research are: 1. Empirical 2. Systematic 3. Valid 4. Reliable 5. Variety of forms

    陈芳 华东师大英语系 Fang CHEN

    A. Characteristics of educational research

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  • ECNU Educational Research Methodology

     All knowledge is derived from sense experience.

     But the result of this experience must take some kind of informational form (data) so that knowledge can be generated: testing hypotheses.

     e.g. Fingernail

    1. Empirical

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  • ECNU Educational Research Methodology

     Five steps for systematic approach to research: 1. Identifying the problem 2. Reviewing information 3. Collecting data 4. Analyzing data 5. Drawing conclusions

     This is not a lock-step process.

    2. Systematic

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  • ECNU Educational Research Methodology

     In general, for something to be valid, we want it to be based on fact or evidence, that is, “capable of being justified”.

     Validity of research deals with the accurate interpretability of the results (internal validity) and the generalizability of the results (external validity).

    3. Validity

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  • ECNU Educational Research Methodology

     Internal validity is the extent to which the results of a research study can be interpreted accurately and with confidence.

    Internal validity

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  • ECNU Educational Research Methodology

     Good:  Figure1.1: Physical education: Possible effects of two different

    exercise programs upon the physical performance test scores of 8th grade boys.

     Bad:  Figure 1.2:  The difference effects of three types of materials on

    performance in eighth-grade science  What are the plausible and competing explanations for

    high test scores in School III?

    Internal validity: Examples

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  • ECNU Educational Research Methodology

    Figure 1.1

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  • ECNU Educational Research Methodology

    Figure 1.2

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  • ECNU Educational Research Methodology

     External validity is the extent to which research results are generalizable to populations and/or conditions.

    External validity

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  • ECNU Educational Research Methodology

     Case1-Good: 125 interviews conducted of parents’ perceptions of the school, random selection, random replacement for parents not available

     Case2---?: 712 surveys sent out, 149 completed and returned. Return rate of 21%.

     Case3---?: 10 graduate students volunteered for a research on the effect length of visual exposure on the recall of nonsense symbols.

    External validity: example

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  • ECNU Educational Research Methodology

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  • ECNU Educational Research Methodology

     Validity is a matter of degree.  No perfect validity in a study.  Attempts in research design to enhance internal

    validity may decrease external validity, and vice versa.

     Balance: so that results can be interpreted with reasonable certainty and still have some useful generalizability.

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  • ECNU Educational Research Methodology

     Reliability refers to the consistency of the research and the extent to which studies can be replicated.

     Internal reliability: e.g. observer agreement  External reliability: e.g. Is the study (methods,

    conditions,etc.) replicable? If replicated, will the result be the same?

    4. Reliability

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  • ECNU Educational Research Methodology

    Validity vs. reliability

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  • ECNU Educational Research Methodology

     Classification of educational research  Basic vs. applied research  Quantitative vs. qualitative research  General methods of research

    5. Classification of educational research

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  • ECNU Educational Research Methodology

     Basic and applied research are differentiated by their goals or purposes.

     The primary purpose of the basic research is the

    extension of knowledge; • E.G. learning observed in a laboratory setting: presenting

    learning materials in a figural or a verbal manner

     The purpose of applied research is the solution of an immediate, practical problem.

    Basic vs. applied

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  • ECNU Educational Research Methodology

    Misconceptions

    1. Basic research is complex and applied research is simple in its methodology.

    2. Basic research is performed by abstract, impractical thinkers, whereas applied research is carried out by unsophisticated practitioners.

    3. Basic research is precise and exacting but of little or no value in a real situation, whereas applied research is often sloppy and haphazard but of great practical value.

    ☒ ☒ ☒

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  • ECNU Educational Research Methodology

     Action research is usually conducted by teachers, administrators, or other educational professional for solving a specific problem or for providing information for decision making at the local level.  Focuses on the solution of day-to-day problems,  Little concern about generalizing to other

    educational settings.  Evaluation

    More about applied research

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  • ECNU Educational Research Methodology

    Krathwohl 1993 shows the main distinction:  Qualitative research: research that describes

    phenomena in words instead of numbers or measures….

     Quantitative research: research that describes phenomena in numbers and measures instead of words.

    Qualitative vs. quantitative research

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  • ECNU Educational Research Methodology

    Other differences

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  • ECNU Educational Research Methodology

    Break

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  • ECNU Educational Research Methodology

    Commonly used methods: 1.Experimental research 2.Quasi-experimental research 3.Nonexperimental quantitative research 4.Historical research 5.Ethnographic research

    General Methods of Research

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  • ECNU Educational Research Methodology

     Quasi-  Variables of interest; Manipulate  Survey research: a nonexperimental research  variables are studied as they exist in the situation

    but not manipulated a) Describing the status quo b) ex post facto research c) causal-comparative studies or correlational

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  • ECNU Educational Research Methodology

     Historical research  What happened in the past  How did they start, how did they influence later

    decisions  E.g. a study of federal assistance programs in USA

    for secondary education during the period 1945- 1960.

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  • ECNU Educational Research Methodology

     Ethnographic research  Associated with anthropology.  the process of providing scientific descriptions of

    educational systems, processes, and phenomena within their specific contexts.

     Keywords: observation, description, qualitative, natural, holistic,

    no strong theoretical base.  e.g. the nature of science instruction in a junior high

    school

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  • ECNU Educational Research Methodology

    Key words:

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