Fish Diversity IV. Phylum Chordata –Superclass Agnatha Class Pteraspidomorphi † Class Myxini (?) Class Cephalaspidomorphi –Superclass Gnathostomata Class

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  • Fish Diversity IV
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  • Phylum Chordata Superclass Agnatha Class Pteraspidomorphi Class Myxini (?) Class Cephalaspidomorphi Superclass Gnathostomata Class Placodermi Class Chondrychthyes Class Acanthodii Class Sarcopterygii Class Actinopterygii Fish Taxa Diversity
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  • Mobile premaxillae & other osteological characteristics
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  • Division TELEOSTEI Synapomorphy: -Mobile premaxillae -urostyle and uroneurals present; caudal fin usually homocercal
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  • Subdivision Osteoglossomorpha Order Osteoglossiformes (6 fam.) Most primitive teleosts Freshwater Tooth plate on tongue bites against roof of mouth, intestine lies left of stomach Osteoglossidae (bony tongues) Notopteridae (knifefishes) Mormyridae (elephantfishes) Gymnarchidae
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  • Subdivision Elopomorpha Leptocephalus larva (long lived, no red blood cells) Saltwater Order Elopiformes (2 fam.) Elopidae (ladyfishes) Megalopidae (tarpons) Order Albuliformes (3 fam.) Albulidae (bonefishes) Order Anguilliformes (15 fam.) Anguillidae (freshwater eels) Muraenidae (moray eels) Ophyctidae (snake eels) Order Saccopharyngiformes (4 fam.) Snipe eels, Swallowers, Pelican eels
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  • Leptocephalus larvae OCEANRIVERS Reproduction Eggs Glass eel Elver Yellow eel Silver eel CATADROMOUS Migration
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  • Subdivision Clupeomorpha Order Clupeiformes (5 fam.) Gas bladder that connects with the ear Most abundant fishes in the world Pelagic environment, schooling behavior Marine ( freshwater and anadromous ) Clupeidae (herring and sardines) Engraulidae (anchovies) Chirocentridae (Wolf herrings)
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  • Division TELEOSTEI Subdivision EUTELEOSTI Synapomorphy: -Presence of adipose fin
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  • Superorder Ostariophysi Inner ear-gas bladder bone connection Response to chemical alarm substances Freshwater Order Cypriniformes (5 fam.) Cyprinidae (largest FW family-2000 spp.) minnows, shiners, carp, zebrafishes Catostomidae (suckers) Order Characiformes (10 fam.) Characidae (large tropical FW family) pirahnas, tetras, S. American darters Order Siluriformes (34 fam.) Fusion skull bones, vomerine teeth, adipose fin, no scales, 1-4 pairs of barbels (CATFISH) Ictaluridae, siluridae, Ariidae, Calychthydae
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  • Superorder Protacanthopterygii (still under revision) Order Esociformes (2 fam.) Esocidae (pike, pickerel) Umbridae (mudminnows) Order Osmeriformes (13 fam.) Osmeridae (smelts) Sarangidae (icefish) Order Salmoniformes (1 fam.) Salmonidae (trout, salmon, char, grayling)
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  • TELEOSTEI EUTELEOSTI NEOTELEOSTS Synapomorphy: -First vertebrae articulation to skull -Retractor dorsalis muscle -Muscular lift of pharyngeal jaws -Hinged tooth attachment
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  • Superorder Stenopterygii Order Stomiiformes (4 fam.) Deep sea (mesopelagic and bathypelagic environment) 200-4000 m of depth Long teeth, unique photophores Gonostomatidae (bristlemouths) Sternoptychidae (marine hatchetfishes) Stomiidae (dragonfishes, viperfishes)
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  • Superorder Cyclosquamata Order Aulopiformes (13 fam.) Cycloid scales Mainly pelagic and abyssal environments Synodontidae (lizardfishes) Giganturidae (telescopefishes) Alepisauridae (lancetfishes)....
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  • Superorder Scopelomorpha Order Myctophiformes (2 fam.) Ctenoid scales, photophores Missing first pharyngeal tooth plate Commonly perform diel vertical migrations Mesopelagic environment Myctophidae (lanterfishes)
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  • TELEOSTEI EUTELEOSTI NEOTELEOSTS ACANTHOMORPHA Synapomorphy: -True fin spines (Spiny Telesots) -Strengthening of vertebral accesories -No teeth on maxillae
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  • Superorder Lampridiomorpha Order Lampridiformes (7 fam.) Unique mandiblar protrusion mechanism Marine pelagic environments Lamprididae (opahs) Radiicephalidae (ribbonfishes) Regalecidae (oarfishes)
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  • Superorder Polymixiomorpha Order Polymixiiformes (1 fam.) (uncertain taxonomic status) Large eyes and chin barbels Marine environments Medium depths (200-600m) Polymixiidae (beardfishes)
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  • Superorder Paracanthopterygii Marine benthic environments Order Percopsiformes (3 fam.) Amblyopsidae (cavefishes) Order Ophidiiformes (5 fam.) Carapidae (pearlfishes) Ophidiidae (cusk eels) Order Gadiformes (12 fam.) Gadidae (cods) Merluciidae (hakes) Order Batrachoidiformes (1 fam.) Batrachoididae (toadfishes and midshipmen) Order Lophiiformes (16 fam.) Lophiidae (monkfishes) Antennariidae (frogfishes).....


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