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  • Strategy for extending sanitation services by an integrated coverage with

    on-site and off-site systems in Japan

    Department of Urban Engineering, Graduate School

    of Engineering, University of Tokyo

    Dr Hiroyuki Katayama

    IWA ASPIRE WS 4/Oct/2011

    Tokyo International Forum

  • Human waste (night soil) in cities was a valuable fertilizer 100 year ago

    Sales amount of human waste in the City of

    Kyoto was 80,000 in 1909 (Equivalent to

    80% of the citys tax revenues)

    2

    Cities (towns)

    Farming villages in

    suburban areas

    Human waste

    Agricultural

    products

    ca. 1900.

  • Public Health in 19th century

    Urbanization in European countries

    Movement of social issues and public health

    3

    Miasma theory Contagion theory cause of disease

    bad air Germ

    Priority of civilization

    Wastewater, Solid waste Poor law

    Drinking water

    Supporter Edwin Chadwick, Max Josef von Pettenkofer

    John Snow Robert Koch

  • Impact of Cholera outbreaks

    First priority was set to prevent Cholera outbreak

    Water supply was focused since V. Cholera isolation by R. Koch (1884).

    Water supply was first proceeded also in Japan, followed by sewer system after World War II.

    4

  • Spread of water supply and sewerage systems

    5

    Spread of

    sewerage systems

    was 40 years

    behind water

    supply service

  • Development of chemical fertilizer (ammonium sulfate) consumption and changes of human waste disposal methods

    6

    0

    300

    600

    900

    1200

    1500

    1800

    1903

    1912

    1917

    1922

    1927

    1932

    1936

    1941

    1946

    1951

    1956

    1961

    1966

    1971

    million

    1896

    Sta

    rt o

    f th

    e im

    po

    rt o

    f

    am

    mo

    niu

    m s

    ulf

    ate

    1901

    Sta

    rt o

    f dom

    estic p

    roduction o

    f

    am

    moniu

    m s

    ulfate

    1913 E

    nd

    of

    the p

    urc

    hases o

    f h

    um

    an

    waste

    1916

    Esta

    blis

    hm

    ent of hum

    an w

    aste

    dum

    pin

    g

    sites a

    t S

    um

    ida R

    iver

    1933

    Esta

    blish

    men

    t o

    f h

    um

    an

    waste

    dis

    po

    sal sit

    e in

    Ayase

    1935

    Ocean

    du

    mp

    ing

    by iro

    ncla

    d s

    hip

    1944

    Railw

    ay

    tran

    sp

    ort

    ati

    on

    of

    hu

    man

    waste

    (Dictionary of Plant Nutrition and Soil Fertility: published by Yokendo, 1980)

  • Pollution and clean-up of Sumida River

    7

    In Japan, legal and institutional improvement, in addition to technological development in the 1970s, has enabled the rapid increase of sewerage coverage, leading to the improvement of river water quality and urban environments.

    Water quality improvement resulted in the restoration of a fireworks show on Sumida River

    Polluted Sumida River in the 1970s

    Construction of sewage facilities

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    100

    1971

    1973

    1975

    1977

    1979

    1981

    1983

    1985

    1987

    1989

    1991

    1993

    1995

    1997

    1999

    2001

    2003

    2005

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    (BOD

    ppm

    Diffusion of sewage systems and change in

    water quality of Sumida River

    Diffu

    sio

    n r

    ate

    (%

    ) Wate

    r qu

    ality

    (pp

    m)

    Water quality (BOD) (Sumida River) (Diffusion rate of switch systemsagainst population (nationwide)(Diffusion rate of switch systems against

    population (Sumida River)

  • A Variety of Types of Sanitation Facilities in Japan

    8

    Residence

    Human

    Waste

    Non-fecal

    wastewater

    Individual

    treatment

    From open field dumping of human

    waste to domestic disposal

    River

    and

    ocean

    etc.

    Vault toilet Ocean dumping

    Human waste

    (night soil)

    treatment facilities

    Flush

    toilet

    Tandoku-shori

    johkasou

    Gappei-shori

    johkasou

    Wastewater treatment

    Untreated miscellaneous wastewater

    Sludge

    Banned in 2007

  • 9

    History of Domestic Wastewater Management in Japan

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    120

    140

    Po

    pu

    lati

    on

    m

    illio

    n

    Public Sewerage system

    Johkasou system

    Dumping into the sea

    Individual management

    Night soil treatment plant

    1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 Year

    Development of domestic Wastewater management in Japan(1955-2000)

  • Inception of sewerage in Japan

    10

    Modern sewerage of Japan started about 130 years ago in

    major cities, as a countermeasure against flood by rainwater

    and for prevention of spreading of epidemics through sanitary

    wastewater.

    Mikawashima wastewater treatment plant, Tokyo

    (the first plant of this kind in Japan:1922) Brick-made sewer, Yokohama

    City (1881)

  • Wastewater law

    Local government is primary responsible for public health and sound city environment as well as protection of public water body.

    To ensure the water quality, local governments plan, build and operate wastewater treatment systems.

    Rainwater management is also included.

    11

  • Changing roles of sewerage systems

    12

    Background

    Cholera epidemic,

    flooding

    Heightened interest in

    living environments

    Advent of energy-saving/

    recycling-oriented society Advent of energy-saving/

    recycling-oriented society

    Heightened interest in

    pleasant space

    Frequent floods in urban areas

    Sluggish water quality improvement

    in closed water areas

    Response to global warming

    Creation of a recycling society

    Growing needs of safety

    and peace of mind

    Deterioration of water

    quality of river and ocean

    Roles of sewerage

    systems Sewerage laws Applicable laws

    and regulations

    Maintaining the cleanliness of the area

    Healthy development of urban areas

    Improvement of public health

    Effective use of resources recovered

    from sewage

    Water quality conservation in

    public water bodies

    Creation of desirable water cycle

    and water environment

    Strengthening countermeasures

    against urban floods

    Regional storm drainage

    Promotion of advanced treatment

    at river basin level

    Change of the role of a sewerage system

    to a recycling system

    that creates healthy water cycle

    and resources recycling

    Mar.1900

    Old version of Sewerage Law

    Enacted aiming at maintaining

    the cleanliness of the area

    Dec.1958 New

    Sewerage Law Enacted

    aiming at improving urban

    environments and public

    health

    Dec.1970

    Revised Sewerage Law

    (Pollution session of the

    Diet) Enacted aiming at

    water quality conservation in

    public water bodies

    Jun.1996

    Revised Sewerage Law

    *Obligation to make effort to

    treat sludge

    *Optical fiber

    Jun.2003

    Act on Countermeasures against

    Flood Damage of Specified Rivers

    Running across Cities was enacted

    *Planning regional flood control

    measures *Require

    drainage systems to be equipped

    with storage and infiltration capacities

    Jun.2005

    Revised Sewerage Law

    *Regional rainwater sewer

    system

    *Promotion of advanced

    wastewater treatment

    *Obligation to implement

    measures at the time of

    accidents

    Basic Act for Environmental

    Pollution Control Aug.1967

    Water Quality Pollution Control

    Act Dec.1970

    Environmental Basic Act

    Nov.1993

    Basic Act on Establishing a

    Sound Material-Cycle Society

    Jun.2000

    Enforcement of the Kyoto

    Protocol Feb.2005

    The Third Basic Environmental

    Plan Apr.2006

    Securing sound water cycle for

    environmental conservation

  • Financial system supporting evolution of the sewerage service

    In view of personal benefits, such as flushing of toilets, and public policy objectives

    including water quality conservation of public water area and control of flood, the

    national government expenses, local expenditure, and charges have been properly

    combined to promote the sewerage service.

    13 13

    2550ha

    510

    4.510

    510510

    4.5104.510

    0.5100.5100.510

    (60%0.742%

    10% 40%50%

    2550ha

    510510

    4.5104.510

    510510

    4.5104.510

    0.5100.5100.5100.5100.5100.5100.510

    (60%0.742%

    10% 40%50%

    Fund composition for construction costs Fund composition for

    sewerage maintenance