Sanitation in Emergencies

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Sanitation in Emergencies. Module 2 – Session 1 Understand what is sanitation 理解何为卫生 Understand how to select the right option for excreta disposal 理解如何正确地处理排泄物处理方法 Be familiar with different technical options for excreta disposal in emergencies 熟悉在应急状态下处理排泄物的不同技术选择 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Sanitation in Emergencies

  • Sanitation in Emergencies Module 2 Session 1

    Understand what is sanitation Understand how to select the right option for excreta disposalBe familiar with different technical options for excreta disposal in emergencies Be familiar with the Emergency Response Equipment for sanitation Construct an emergency latrine! !

  • Sanitation in Emergency1.Excreta disposal 2.Solid waste management 3.Waste water management (drainage) 4. Vector control

  • *What is dangerous about faeces? Primary sanitary barriers

    Toilets Hand-washing (critical times) Water treatment and water handling Food hygiene

  • *Pathogen Die Off Time in faeces


    Pathogen Retention Time

    1M 1 23M 34M 45M 56M 610M10

    E coli++-----



    Vibrio Cholerae+------

    Enteric Viruses++-----





  • *How do we do excreta disposal in a emergency?

  • *Sphere Standards and Indicators SPHERE standard 1: access to and numbers of toilets 1People have sufficient numbers of toilets, sufficiently close to their dwellings to allow them rapid, safe and acceptable access at all times of the day and night.

  • *Sphere Standards and IndicatorsSPHERE standard 2design and construction2: People have access to toilets which are designed, constructed and maintained in such a way as to be comfortable, hygienic and safe to use.

  • Austrian RC in Batagram (Pakistan) EQ Operation

    Considerations and information they need for construction and design of latrine to be comfortable, hygienic and safe to use?

  • *Considerations Number of people using latrine and location of people Communal or family Elderly/disabled population /Design life: - will population move? -Space Comfort and community desires Tradition of latrine use in community Privacy and security Use of water/reuse of faeces availability of water? /- Anal cleansing material (amount of water used) Menstruation Availability of local materials and tools

  • *Considerations (cont.) Pit size V = (NxSxD)/1000 + 0.5 m of free space x AN = number of users; S = Sludge accumulation (m3/person/year); D= design life (yearsA= pit-base area (m2)Groundwater Not all designs suitable for high groundwater Usually 99% of pathogens destroyed within 2m of unlined pit in unconsolidated soils if above water table299%If in saturated zone then contamination spread is HORIZONTAL (usually) up to 15m15Soil conditions Soil stability Influence if a pit or soak pit is possible to excavate Watch for effects throughout the seasons Infiltration rate

  • *Considerations (cont.) Siting Communal latrines good distance (30m) away from dwellings and down wind if possible 30 Family latrines near to dwelling (6m) 5 Away from water sources (see groundwater) Avoid depressions, water courses that might run with water , DISCUSS with community Space for additional latrines Safety and accessibility (Lighting, Location, Distance, Screening, Design - separate M/W/Children - ) - // Operation and maintenance Construction of hand washing facilities Time constraintsFinancial constraints Human Resources

  • *Technical optionsImmediate action

    1st phase Acute emergency Open defecation fields Shallow trench latrines Deep trench latrineShallow family latrinesBucket latrinePacket latrineChemical toiletsControl free defecationCommunal facilitiesCommunity consultationMedium term action

    2nd phase stabilized emergency Simple pit latrineVIP latrine Pour-flush latrines EcoSan (Ecological Sanitation) Borehole latrine Septic tanks Family facilities Community participationdisaster4-6 weeks 1-6 months

  • *Latrine components basics-Privacy and dignity Roof is essential in areas with high rainfall Door / spiral-shaped entrance /< 1 m2 is recommended 1Frame: timber, PVC pipe, pvcFitted with plastic sheeting, local materialsUsers involvement in design SuperstructureSupport weight of a person Easy to clean Prefabricated or manufactured locally Concrete, wood, ferrocement or plasticSlabPit1 m across and 3 m deep (minimum 0.9 m diameter) 130.9Best shape: circular The top 0.5 m of a pit should be always lined (but depend of soil) 0.5Different pit lining material: locally available

  • *Communal or Family? Family facilities:

    Usually designed and built by the users (with or without designs, tools and materials provided by others). They may be used by several families. The latrine belongs to the family / ies.Communal facilities: Managed by the community as a shared resource (market, school, etc.).The facility belong to the community.

  • *Sanitation Ladder


  • *Shallow trench latrine

  • *Deep trench latrine

  • *Pit latrine and VIP

  • *Pour-Flush latrine

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  • *Exercise latrine design -In your group think about the positive and negative aspects of this design (10 min)10Source: OXFAM. Photographer: Saira Raza

  • *Which one would you use?

  • *Operation and MaintenanceCleaning: Supervision + Equipment + Training ++Communal latrines: Need for employing some members to clean and maintain Ownership: Involving population in design, siting, construction, maintenance, etc. Family latrines Cleaning materials: cleaning kit (disinfectants, mops, rags, buckets, gloves, etc)

  • Handwashing Facilities Providing handwashing facilities is easier said than done, especially in a large area. Work with your team to chose the right technology (jug, tippy tap, etc) and establish a system of keeping water available

  • * Standard-size squatting plate (1200 mm x 800 mm) 1200x800Emergency Response Equipment for Sanitation

  • Rapid Latrine

  • SanPlat Mould Box