Tesis Doctoral

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  • UNIVERSIDAD COMPLUTENSE DE MADRID

    FACULTAD DE FILOLOGA

    Departamento de Filologa Inglesa I (Lengua y Lingstica Inglesa)

    TESIS DOCTORAL

    A cross-cultural socio-pragmatic study of invitations in Palestinian arabic and American english

    MEMORIA PARA OPTAR AL GRADO DE DOCTOR

    PRESENTADA POR

    Mahmood K.M. Eshreteh

    Directores

    Mariann Ellen Larsen Pehrzon Adil Moustaoui Sghir

    Madrid, 2014

    Mahmood K.M. Eshreteh, 2014

  • UNIVERSIDAD COMPLUTENSE DE MADRID

    FACULTAD DE FILOLOGA

    Departamento de Filologa Inglesa I

    (Lengua y Lingistica Inglesa)

    A CROSS-CULTURAL SOCIO-PRAGMATIC STUDY OF

    INVITATIONS IN PALESTINIAN ARABIC AND AMERICAN

    ENGLISH

    MEMORIA PARA OPTAR AL GRADO DE DOCTOR

    PRESENTADA POR

    Mahmood K. M. Eshreteh

    Bajo la direccin de los Doctores

    Dra. Mariann Ellen Larsen Pehrzon

    Dr. Adil Moustaoui Sghir

    Madrid, 2013

  • I

    Facultad de Filologa

    Departamento de Filologa Inglesa I

    TESIS DOCTORAL

    A Cross-Cultural Socio-Pragmatic Study of Invitations in Palestinian

    Arabic and American English

    Memoria para optar al grado de doctor presentada por

    Mahmood K. M. Eshreteh

    Bajo la direccin de los Doctores

    Dra. Mariann Ellen Larsen Pehrzon

    Dr. Adil Moustaoui Sghir

    Madrid, 2013

  • II

    DEDICATION

    To my wife and my children

    Who have offered me all possible support throughout my study.

  • III

    Table of Contents

    Contents Page

    DEDICATION II

    Table of Contents III

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT X

    Transliteration Key XI

    List of Abbreviations and Acronyms XII

    List of Tables XIII

    List of Figures and Diagrams XIV

    List of Charts XIV

    RESUMEN EN ESPAOL XV

    Abstract (English) XXII

    CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

    1.1. Background to the study 1

    1.2. The aims of the study 4

    1.3. Significance of the study 5

    1.4. Scope of this study 7

    1.5. The organization of the study 8

    CHAPTER TWO: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

    2.0 Preliminaries 12

    2.1. Early Approaches to the Study of Language 14

    2.2. Communicative competence (The Birth of sociolinguistics) 16

    2.3. Context 20

    2.4. Pragmatics 23

    2.4.1. Pragmatic competence 26

    2.5. Teaching Pragmatics to EFL Learners 27

    2.5.1. Pragmatic Transfer 27

    2.5.2. Pragmatic Failure 28

    2.5.2.1. Definitions of Pragmatic Failure 28

    2.5.2.2. Classifications of Pragmatic Failure 29

    2.5.2.2.1. Pragmalinguistic Failure 29

    2.5.2.2.2. Sociopragmatic Failure 31

  • IV

    2.10.2.3. He Zirans Classification 32

    2.6. Conclusion 34

    CHAPTER THREE: SPEECH ACTS

    3.0. Introduction 35

    3.1. Definitions of speech acts 35

    3.2. Speech Act Theory 39

    3.3. Classification of speech acts 42

    3.4. Speech Acts and Felicity Conditions 46

    3.5. Macro and Micro speech acts 47

    3.6. Indirect Speech Acts 51

    3.7. Speech acts and the Cooperative Principle (CP) 58

    3.8. Universality versus Culture-Specificity of Speech Acts 62

    3.9. A critique of the Speech Act Theory 63

    3.10. Speech Act Research 66

    CHAPTER FOUR: THE NOTION OF FACE

    (A CROSS-CULTURAL INVESTIGATION)

    4.0. Introduction 69

    4.1. Background 70

    4.2. Discussions on the definitions of the term face 70

    4.3. The Concept of Face across Cultures 75

    4.3.1. The concept of face in Palestinian culture 79

    4.3.1.1. Face upgrading/honoring expressions 81

    4.3.1.2. Face demeaning/threatening expressions 83

    4.3.2. The concept of face in American culture 85

    4.4. The concept of loss of face 86

    4.4.1. Acts that cause loss of face 86

    4.5. Conclusion 88

    CHAPTER FIVE: POLITENESS

    5.0. Introduction 90

    5.1. Discussions of Definitions of Politeness 91

    5.2. Types of Politeness 93

    5.2.1. First-order politeness 93

  • V

    5.2.2. Second-order politeness 94

    5.3. Theories of Politeness 95

    5.3.1. Politeness as Tact 95

    5.3.2. The Social-Norm View of Politeness 96

    5.3.3. The Conversational-Contract View of Politeness 96

    5.3.4. The Conversational-Maxim View 97

    5.3.4.1. Politeness as Rapport 97

    5.3.4.2. Politeness as Comity 99

    5.3.5. The Face-View of Politeness 103

    5.3.5.1. Politeness as Face by Goffman 103

    5.3.5.2. Politeness as Face (Brown and Levinson, 1987) 104

    5.3.6. Rapport -Management View 108

    5.3.7. Scollon and Scollons Model of Politeness 109

    5.3.8. Communication Accommodation Theory and Politeness 110

    5.4. Critique of Traditional Theories of Politeness 112

    5.5. Politeness and Indirectness 116

    5.6. Linguistic Choice by Indirectness and Politeness 117

    5.7. Why is Politeness Interesting? 118

    5.8. Non-Verbal Communication VS. Politeness 120

    5.9. Universality versus culture-specificity of Politeness 124

    5.9.1. Politeness in Palestinian Arabic 129

    5.9.2. Politeness in American English 131

    5.10. Social Variables Affecting Politeness 132

    5.10.1. Power 133

    5.10.2. Social distance 133

    5.10.3 Gender 135

    5.10.4. Age 136

    5.11. Conclusion 137

    CHAPTER SIX: METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURES

    6.0. Introduction 139

    6.1. Methods of data elicitation on speech acts 139

    6.2. Ethnography of communication 145

  • VI

    6.3. Methods used in the present study 147

    6.4. The questionnaire 148

    6.4.1 Description of the questionnaires 149

    6.4.2. The characteristics of the subjects 151

    6.4.2.1. The first group of subjects 151

    6.4.2.2. The second group of subjects 152

    6.5. Sample 152

    6.6. Data analysis 153

    CHAPTER SEVEN: INVITATIONS

    7.0. Introduction 156

    7.1. The speech act of inviting: Discussions of Definitions 156

    7.2. Classifications and felicity conditions of the speech act of

    inviting

    158

    7.3. Invitations VS Requests 162

    7.4. Types of invitations 164

    7.4.1. Written and Spoken Invitations 164

    7.4.2. Ambiguous Vs. Unambiguous Invitations 165

    7.5. Invitations as Communicative Practices 167

    7.5.1. Reasons for making invitations 167

    7.5.2. Problems with Invitations 168

    7.5.3. Refusal to invitations: a face - threatening act 169

    7.5.4. Hedges in Declining Invitations 171

    7.6. Studies on Invitation 173

    7.6.1. Studies on Invitation in Different Languages 174

    7.6.2. Studies in English 178

    7.6.2.1. Intra-lingual Studies in English 178

    7.6.2.2. Cross-Cultural studies in English 182

    7.6.3. Studies in Arabic 187

    7.7. Conclusion 191

    CHAPTER EIGHT: STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS OF INVITATIONS IN

    AMERICAN ENGLISH (AE) AND PALESTINIAN ARABIC (PA)

    8.0. Introduction 193

  • VII

    8.1. The structure of invitations 194

    8.1.1. Analysis of invitations in AE 194

    8.1.2. Functional implications of invitations in AE 198

    8.1.3. Analysis of invitations in PA 204

    8.1.4. Functional implications of invitations in PA 208

    8.2. Invitations and Hospitality/Sociability 215

    8.3. Non-verbal Communicative Aspects of Invitations 220

    8.4. Communication Style in PA and AE 228

    8.5. Conclusion 230

    CHAPTER NINE: INVITATIONS AND DIRECTNESS IN AE AND PA

    9.0. Introduction 233

    9.1. Linguistic aspects of invitations 234

    9.2. The preference of strategy use between groups: overall results 234

    9.3. Preference for and use of politeness strategies in relation

    to social status, age and gender

    236

    9.3.1. Social status and age 237

    9.3.2. Social status and gender 242

    9.3.3. Age and gender 248

    9.3.4. The impact of social distance in relation to sex, age and social

    status on invitation making

    253

    9.4. Conclusion: The findings of the chapter 254

    CHAPTER TEN: INVITATIONS AND POLITENESS

    STRATEGIES IN PA AND AE

    10.0. Introduction 260

    10.1. Strategies of Doing FTAs 261

    10.2. Invitations and Politeness in PA and AE (General

    Observations)

    263

    10.2.1. Scenarios triggering negative politeness 264

    10.2.2. Scenarios triggering Positive politeness 265

    10.3. Discussion of Invitations and Politeness Strategies in PA 267

    10.3.1. Positive Politeness (PP) in PA 272

    10.3.2. Negative Politeness (NP) in PA 277

  • VIII

    10.3.3. Bald-on-record (BOR) in PA 280

    10.3.4. Off-record (OR) In PA 282

    10.4. Discussion of Invitations and Politeness Strategies in AE 283

    10.4.1. Positive Politeness (PP) in AE 284

    10.4.2. Negative Politeness (NP) in AE 286

    10.4.3. Bald-on-record (BOR) in AE 290

    10.4.4. Off-record (OR) in AE 291

    10.5. Conclusion 291

    CHAPTER ELEVEN: RESPONSES TO INVITATIONS IN AE AND PA

    11.0. Introduction 294

    11.1. Accepting an invitation 295

    11.1.1. Accepting invitations in PA 295

    11.1.2. Accepting invitations in AE 298

    11.2. Invitation-refusal 302

    11.2.1. Invitation refusal in PA 303

    11.2.2. Invitation refusal in AE 308

    11.2.3. Conclusion 311

    11.3. Insistence: and its importance 312

    11.3.1 Definitions 313

    11.3.2. Appropriateness of insisting 314

    11.3.3. Insistence in the present study 316

    11.3.4. Final remarks on Insistence 322

    11.4. Ritual Refusals