The Subjunctive!

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We have thoroughly covered the Indicative. Now it is time for. The Subjunctive!. Rarely used in English Indicative = facts, things that have happened Subjunctive = possibility, hoped for, not fact Most used in specific kinds of subordinate clauses - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Chapter 42

    A Slave to the Recue

    Quntus Valerius, dominus meus, abhinc dus mnss Bthni Romam patre missus est epistuls ferns. Ego n cum domin profectus sum. Cum quattuor dis nvigvissmus, subit maxima tempests coorta est. Nvis hc illc ventIs iactta in ingent erat percul. Tandem cum undae et vent nvem ad nsulam quondam gissent, ns in terram vix vsimus. Ttam noctem in ltore mort, prIm lce, quod iam vs tempesttis cecidisse vidbtur, in nvem regress sumus.

    Subit complrs scaphs hominum plns cnspeximus. Magister navis nostrae, cum has scaphas conspexisset, Pr d immortls! exclmvit. H homins sunt prtae. Eheu! Effugere nn poterimus.

    Cui dominus meus, S m servveris, inquit, pater meus, qu est vir dves et praeclrus, magnam tibi pecniam dabit. Haec nvis est ills scaphs celerior. Prtae, etiam s sequentur, ns nn capient.

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  • Effugere cnt sumus, sed frstr. Prtae enim, cum ns effugere cnants cnspexissent, nvem nostrum adort sunt. Dominus meus statim gladium strnxit et mihi clmns M sequere! in scapham dsiluit.

    Ego quidem sectus dominum meum dfendere coep, nam vulnus grave accpisse vidbtur. Magister nvis, cum vald timret, sus vetuit ns adiuvre. S prts resistmus, inquit, ns omns sine dubi necbimur.

    Tum prtae, cum ns supervissent, arma nbs admrunt et ns ad ltus

    addxrunt. Cum prmum in terr fuimus, prtae circum ns stants rogbant qu

    essmus, unde vnissmus, qu iter facermus. Omns tacbant praeter

    dominum meum. Ille enim, S pecniam vultis, inquit, nllam pecniam hc

    invenitis. Ns omns paupers sumus. At nisi ns abre sintis, vs omns

    poens certe dabitis. Cvis sum Rmnus.

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  • Rsrunt prtae, et nus ex es xclmvit, Rmns nn am. S vs nllam

    pecniam habtis, vs cert necbimus. Tum magister nvis met commtus,

    Hic adulscns, inquit, vra nn dcit. Pater eius est vir dvitissimus. Ille

    magnam vbs pecniam dabit. Itaque prtrum ali dominum meum in casam

    suam trxrunt, ali ns cters in nvem redxrunt et ibi custdibant.

    Nocte, cum omns dormrent, ego surrx, pgine modo armtus. Clam in

    mare dsilu, ad ltus natvi, casam prtrum summ celeritte petvi. Cum casae

    frtim appropinquvissem, per fenestram vd dominum meum in lect iacentem

    ac dus custds vnum bibents. Paulisper nihil facibam. Mox tamen alter

    custdibus cas exit, alter cum domin me manbat. Tum ego silenti

    ingressus hunc custdem pgine percuss. Deinde cas gressus ad ltus

    dominum portv, nam ille propter vulnus aegrtbat neque ambulre poterat. Ibi

    scapham invn quam prtae nn custdibant. Ita ltore profect ex nsul

    vsimus.

    Iam mults dis in scaph ermus cum merctribus quibusdam invent

    sumus. Quoniam neque cibum neque aquam habbmus, graviter aegrtbmus.

    Sed merctrs ns crvrunt et Brundisium attulrunt. Ibi dominus meus mults

    dis mortus iam convaluit et paucs dibus aderit.

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  • 1. What was Valerius bringing from Bithynia?

    2. What happened four days into the voyage?

    3. What happened to the ship?

    4. What did the passengers do during the night?

    5. What did they do in the morning?

    6. What did they spot?

    7. What did the captain say they saw?

    8. What did Valerius suggest doing?

    9. Why did he think this was a safe thing to do?

    10. What did the pirates do?

    11. What did Valerius do then?

    12. Why did the slave defend Valerius?

    13. What did the captain do?

    14. What was his reason?

    15. What was the next thing the pirates did?

    16. What did they ask?

    17. What did Valerius have to say?

    18. What did one pirate respond?

    19. What information did the captain of the ship volunteer?

    20. What action did the pirates take with this information?

    21. What did the slave do at night?

    22. What did he see through the window?

    23. Why was he able to enter the hut?

    24. What did he do when he entered?

    25. How did he get his master away?

    26. How were the slave and Valerius rescued?

    27. What was their condition?

    28. Why did they stay at Brundisium?

  • Rarely used in EnglishIndicative = facts, things that have happenedSubjunctive = possibility, hoped for, not factMost used in specific kinds of subordinate clausesThe good news: absolutely regular formationWe have thoroughly covered the Indicative. Now it is time for

  • The easiest tense in Latin!Can you recognize how it is constructed?Eucleides, cum praedones timeret, solus nocte non egressus est.Sextus rogavit ubi esset Davus.Sextus rogavit quid Davis faceret.Cum Magistra intraret, omnes discipuli surrexerunt.Add personal endings to the present active infinitive.

  • Change these verbs from imperfect indicative to imperfect subjunctive.Cum piratae arcessebantCum Sextus obsecrabatCum pecuniam rapiebatisCum non valebamusCum nihil in ludo discebasCum in terram evadere poteramusCum Sextus grammatico non parebat8. Cum grammaticus Sextum dormientem animadvertebat9. Cum nos omnes Sextum monebamusCum Romam regredi volebatis Cum cibum adferebasCum in nave magna navigabamarcesserentobsecraretraperetisvaleremusdiscerespossemuspareretanimadverteretmoneremusvelletisadferresnavigarem

  • Use your review vocab sheets to fill in an imperfect subjunctive.

    Magistra rogavit quis / qui ___________

    Cum discipuli ________, Magistra gavisa est.

  • Almost as easy as the imperfect subjunctive.Titus, cum amicos in popin conspexisset, eos salutavit.Cornelius rogavit quid praedones fecissent.Davus nescivit cur Geta efugisset.Quintus Valerius, cum piratae eum superavissent, non iam restitit.Add personal endings to the perfect active infinitive.

  • Change these pluperfect indicatives to pluperfect subjunctives.cur Sextus grammatico non paruerat.unde piratae venerant.ubi Valerius fuerat.quos rapueratis.quid nos omnes feceramus...in quo loco fueras.unde veneram.8. quid Sextus cupiverat.9. quid facere potueratis.10. cur tecum ire nolueram.11. cur nihil in ludo dediceras.12. qui nobis resisterant.unde princeps redierat.quomodo evaseras.paruisset.venissent.fuisset.rapuissetis.fecissemus.fuisses.venissem.cupivisset.potuissetis.noluissem.dedicisses.resistissent.rediisset.evasisses.

  • Using your review vocab sheets, complete the following sentences with a pluperfect subjunctive.Magistra rogabat quid vos ________.

    Cum nos ___________, convalescebamus.

  • Direct: Sextus rogavit, Ubi est Davus?Indirect: Sextus rogavit ubi esset Davus.

  • Grammaticus Sextum rogavit ubi esset Hesperia.Piratae Valerium rogaverunt quis esset.Rogavimus cur piratae nos pauperes cepissent.Cornelia scire voluit quo irent.An indirect question reports, but does not quote, a question. The sentence that contains an indirect question is usually not a question! Did you notice that the heading above is an indirect question?

  • Look for introductory verbs of asking, knowing, wondering, and other such verbsLook for interrogative words starting the indirect question:Quis, quid (who, what)Si, nisi (if, ifnot)Quo (where to)Num (whether, if)Cur (why)Qualis, quale (what kind of)Unde (from where)Imperfect tense shows action at the same time as the main verb.Pluperfect tense shows action before the main verb.

  • Translate into English.Cornelia rogavit quis Quintum Valerium ad Bithyniam misisset.Cornelia rogavit quis Quintum Valerium ad Bithyniam mitteret.Servus scivit quot dies navigavissent.Servus scivit quot dies navigarent.Piratae nesciverunt qualis homo esset Valerius. Piratae scire voluerunt si Valerius multam pecuniam haberet.Pirata explicabat cur Romanos non amaret.Valerius nesciebat num servus auxilium ferret.Valerius nesciebat num servus auxilium tulisset.

  • What is the direct Latin question inside each of these indirect questions?

    Write the original Latin question and its English translation on the lines provided.

    1. Magistra Octaviam rogavit cur in ludo dormiret.

    Original Question:__________________________________________________________

    Translation:_______________________________________________________________

    2. Magistra Liviam rogavit quo in loco pensum domesticum reliquisset.

    Original Question:__________________________________________________________

    Translation:_______________________________________________________________

    3. Plinius Claudum rogavit ubi esset Cincinnatus.

    Original Question:__________________________________________________________

    Translation:_______________________________________________________________

    4. Magistra Sabinam rogavit quis amica esset.

    Original Question:__________________________________________________________

    Translation:_______________________________________________________________

    5. Magistra Senecam Catoenemque rogavit quo tempore e ludo egressi essent.

    Original Question:__________________________________________________________

    Translation:_______________________________________________________________

  • 6. Magistra Lucretiam rogavit cur Livia heri afuisset.

    Original Question:_________________________________________________________

    Translation:______________________________________________________________

    7. Magistra Sabinam Augustumque rogavit in quibus oppidis habitarent.

    Original Question:_________________________________________________________

    Translation:______________________________________________________________

    8. Cincinnatus Clodium rogavit quid dixisset.

    Original Question:_____________