Thesis Defense Colleen Iacianci

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  • Hotel Managers Attitudes

    toward Social Media

    Colleen Iacianci

  • Why?

    Electronic Word of Mouth

    Competitive Strategy

    Decision Makers

  • Significance and Contributions of the Study

    Growing Hotel Market (Lodging Econometrics, 2013) Increased Occupancy (PwC, 2014) Increase in Consumer use of Social Media (Alston,


    Contributions Management Companies General Managers Department Managers Line Employees Students/Future Hospitality Employees

  • Research Questions

    1. Which internal or external factors are perceived to exercise the most influence on managers attitudes to implement social media within their organization?

    2. Are there significant differences in managers perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes toward social media based on their demographics and contextual background (i.e., age, levels of education, work experiences, job titles, type of hotels, and management ownership)?

    3. Which of the predictor variables are most influential in predicting managers beliefs and perceptions (i.e., ease of use, return on investment, and usefulness) as well as their attitudes and actual use of social media?

    4. What are the factors that drive changes, what are the pressing challenges, and what are the most important returns on investments which affect social media use within the organization?

  • Technology Acceptance Model (Davis et al., 1989)

  • Theoretical Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model

    (Venkatesh & Davis, 2000).

  • Proposed Model

  • Instrument Design

    Section 1 Attitude (Harvard Business Review, 2010) Technology Readiness (Parasuraman & Colby, 2015) Technology Acceptance (Venkatesh & Davis, 2000)

    Section 2 Actual Use (Harvard Business Review, 2010)

    Channel use and online reviews (Benea, 2014; Nadda, Dadwal, Mulindwa, & Vieira, 2015)

    Return on Investment (Harvard Business Review, 2010) Challenges (Harvard Business Review, 2010; Wilson, 2009) Factors that Drive Change (Alston, 2009; Anderson, 2012; Benea, 2012;

    Fisher, 2009; Hotel News Now, 2014; Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010)

    Section 3 Background Information (Gregory, 2006; Kimes, 2010)

  • Sample & Procedure

    Obtained GM email addresses in OH

    Email/Qualtrics Survey

    Expanded search to PA & MI

    Expanded again using snowball sampling

    Total of 470 emailed, 97 returned

    (2% response rate)

  • Descriptive Analysis

    Demographics & Job Background

    Cronbach alpha coefficient

    Internal Reliability of Scales

    Factor analysis

    ROI, Challenges, Driving Forces

    ANOVA (and independent samples t test)

    Differences among external variables

    Simple linear regressions and multiple regressions

    Which variables affects attitudes and actual use

    Data Analysis

  • Measurement Quality

  • Significant Findings differences among external variables (Research questions one and two)

    Perceived Usefulness/Return on Investment job title

    Perceived Ease of Use

    years of experience age



    Internal Variables (TRI) discomfort - strongest variable

  • Significant Findings causal relationships among variables (Research question three)

    Perceived Ease of Use technology readiness

    Return on Investment type of hotel

    Perceived Usefulness

    return on investment

    Attitudes return on investment

    Actual Use

    Type of hotel

  • Challenges (Research questions four)

    Organizational Operational Financial

    Top specific challenges

    linking social media activities to an impact on company financials or ROI (operational)

    malware and phishing scams by cyber crooks (organizational)

    educating your staff on how to use social media (organizational)

  • Driving Forces (Research questions four)

    Increased Budget

    Knowledgeable Employee

    Customer Encouragement

  • Return on Investment (Research questions four)

    Brand Promotion



    Top specific ROIs

    Monitor trends among customers (impression)

    Have a social media profile (brand promotion)

    Build brand/property loyalty (engagement)

  • Limitations

    Lack of prior research on social media in hotel industry

    Difficulty in obtaining email addresses and willing participants Produced small sample size Not generalizable

    Online survey Difficulty tracking non-response rates Spam/junk

    Low reliability for scale of actual use Design of actual use question(s)

  • Managerial Implications

    High levels of discomfort

    Gap in perceived ease of use between job titles

    Gap in perceived ease of use with tenure

    External challenges perceived differently with age

    ROI key factors

    Challenges and driving forces

  • Future Research

    Replicate study and share with wider population Generalizable

    Actual Use Measure by frequency of activity

    Compare survey results Resorts vs casino Cleveland vs Miami

    Expert interviews or focus group May help to better explore attitude and actual use and

    ask follow up questions

  • Thank You

    Questions or Comments?