VN - Miền Bắc xưa

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    VIT NAM(12)

    Min Bc Xa - TonkinNgun: Internet

    Nhc: Hng Hng Tuyt Tuyt Th iu oo nng: Quch Th H

    Son tho & Thc hin PPS: Trn L Ty-Phng

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    Bc K(ch Hn: ) l tn gi do vua Minh Mng t ra nm 1834 ch phn tt Ninh Bnh tr ra pha bc ca Vit Nam, thay cho tn gi Bc Thnh thi nh TySn v Gia Long. y cng l mt trong ba k to nn nc Vit Nam thi nh Nguyn.t t Thanh Ha n Bnh Thun l Trung K v t Bin Ha vo nam l Nam K.

    Nm 1883, Php nh chim thnh H Ni ln th hai, buc nh Nguyn k Hip cHarmand (25 thng 8, 1883) u hng thc dn Php v Hip c Patentre (6 thng6, 1884), cng nhn quyn bo h ca Php vi vng lnh th cn li ca i Nam.

    Theo Hip c Harmand, khu vc t o Ngang tr ra bc gi l Tonkin(Bc K).Hip c Patentre quy nh li ranh giiTonkin(Bc K), theo Bc Ktnh t a

    gii pha nam tnh Ninh Bnh tr ra.

    Nm 1885Bc Kgm c 13 tnh: Bc Ninh, Cao Bng, H Ni, Hi Dng, HngHa, Hng Yn, Lng Sn, Nam nh, Ninh Bnh, Qung Yn, Sn Ty, Thi Nguyn,Tuyn Quang.

    Vng tBc Ktn ti trn danh ngha vn thuc lnh th ca i Nam, nhng trnthc t thuc quyn cai tr ca CngS Bc K (Rsident suprieur du Tonkin; dchng ra l "Bc K lu tr quan i thn") ngi Php.

    Cc hip c Php k vi triu nh nh Nguyn khng c Trung Hoa cng nhn.Phi n sau Chin tranh Php-Thanh(18841885), Php mi nm ton b ch quynca An Nam (min Trung Vit Nam) v Bc K.

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    Nm 1887,Tonkin/Bc Ktr thnh mt x bo h nm trong Lin bang ng Dng.Sau khi o chnh Php, ngy 20 thng 3 nm 1945, Nht c ThngS Nishimuratm thi cai qun x ny v i tn l Bc B.

    Sau khi thnh lp Quc gia Vit Nam quc trng Bo i thayBc Phn cho"Bc

    B".

    Trc khi triu nh Hu buc phi k Ha c Qu Mi, 1883, ngi Php thnh lpQun on vin chinh Bc K (corps expditionnaire du Tonkin) xm lcBc K.

    Cc tng ch huy Qun on vin chinh Bc K ng thi cng l ThngSoi Bc K.

    Nm 1885, tng Philippe Marie Andr Roussel de Courcy c c sang Vit Nam viquyn hn kim qun c Bc v Trung K.

    Nm 1886, Paul Bert, mt quan chc dn s c c sang vi chc v "Tng CngSTrungBc K" (Rsident gnral de l'Annam et du Tonkin), gi tt l TngS, thay

    mt cho chnh ph Php ch tr mi cng vic i ngoi ca triu nh Vit Nam vthng c gi l "Ton Quyn LngK" hoc "Ton Quyn Trung Bc K".

    Di quyn trc tip ca TngS l mt h thng quan li thc dn Php gip vic:ng u Trung K l Khm S Trung K (Rsident suprieur de lAnnam) v ng umi tnh c Bc K v Trung K l CngS (Rsident) v Ph S (Rsident adjoint).

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    Nm 1887, chc v Ton Quyn ng Dng c thnh lp, nm ton quyn cai qunc Bc- Trung -Nam K.

    Nm 1889, chc v TngS b bi b, chc v ThngS Bc K (Rsident gnral duTonkin), cn c gi l TngTr S, c t ra m nhim cc cng vic cho

    chnh ph Php bn cnh Nam triu.

    "Tonkin"vn l c tri m tn Hn-Vit ca a danh H Ni, thi nh L gi l ngKinh (). V cng l trung tm hnh chnh v thng mi min Bc nn Tonkinc ngi phng Ty dng ch ton xng Ngoithi Trnh -Nguyn phntranh di nhiu dng nhTunquin, Tonquin, Tongking, Tongkin, vTonkin.

    "Tonkin"c ngi Php ch nh ring xBc Kca triu Minh Mngtr i.

    Tuy tnTonkinkhng cn dng v mt hnh chnh nhng trong ting Anh ta cn thyn xut hin trong tn gi Vnh Bc B "Gulf of Tonkin"v cy thin l"Tonkincreeper".

    Tnh t latinh ha tonkinensis(Phn loi hc), dng miu t cc loi, ch yu l ccging cy c Bc B (Tonkin). V d Sindora tonkinensisch cy g lau, hayDalbergia tonkinensis, tc sa Bc B.

    Ngy nay, i khi, ch"Bc K"hay"dn Bc K"c mt s ngi min Nam VitNam gi ch nhng ngi Min Bc.

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    Bn Tonkin, v nm 1888

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    Hin vt ng sm nht chu ca ngi Vit C

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    i Nam Quan vo khong nm 1880Ca NamQuan ngay bingii TrungHoav VitNam. K t HNi ln n tnhl LngSn l

    150 km; n cys 152 l ch KLa; n cys 158 l TamLung; n cys 162 l ngng; n cys 167 l ca NamQuan i sang LongChu bn Tu. Nh vy t ngng lnca NamQuan c 5 km; t KLa ln NamQuan mt 15 km (v pha Ty Nam, ch KLa c

    ng TamThanh, trc ng TamThanh c ni Vng Phu hay tng nng TTh l nhng danhthng ca tnh LngSn) v t tnhl LngSn ln Nam Quan l 17 km.

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    8/89i Nam Quan vo thi Php thuc

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    9/89iNam Quan ranhgiiviTrungQuc

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    10/89ngngngniNam Quan

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    11/89Hn Gai

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    Lng qu Namnh

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    13/89VnhH Long

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    Sn

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    15/89Laongtrn sng

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    Mtngtrong lngbngpnc

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    p Thi H

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    Lng quHiPhng

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    uathuynHiPhng

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    Ph TuHiPhng

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    SngHiPhng

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    Bnu Hn Gai

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    V cngHiPhng

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    il Paul Bert, HiPhng

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    Vn phngHipHiKNghXutCngtiVinng

    il Paul Bert, HiPhng

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    Thnh HNi

    Cha Din Hu (Mt Ct) c vua L Thi

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    Cha Din Hu (Mt Ct) c vua L ThiTng cho khi cng xy dng vo ma ngthng mi (m lch) nm K Su 1049,nin hiu Thin Cm Thnh V th nht.

    Cha Mt Ct ch c mt gian nm trn mtct gia h Linh Chiu nh c trng hoasen. Truyn thuyt k li rng, cha cxy dng theo gic m ca vua L Thi Tng(1028-1054) v theo gi thit k ca nhs Thin Tu.

    Vo nm 1049, vua m thy c PhtB Quan m ngi trn ta sen dt vua lnto. Khi tnh dy, nh vua k chuyn livi by ti v c nh s Thin Tu khuyndng cha, dng ct nh trong chimbao, lm to sen ca Pht B Quan m t

    trn ct nh thy trong mng v cho ccnh s i vng xung quanh tng kinh cuko di s ph h, v th cha mang tnDin Hu.

    Cha Mt Ct c trng tu vo khong

    nhng nm 1840-1850 v vo nm 1922.

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    ()

    Din Hu t

    Thng phng thu d nht chung lanNguyt sc nh ba phong th anSi vn o min phng knh lnhThp quang song tr ngc tim hnVn duyn bt nhiu thnh gi tcBn im v u nhn phng khoanTham thu th phi bnh ng tng

    Ma cung Pht quc ho sinh quan

    Cha Din Hu

    m thu cha thong ting chung tnPhong , trng ngi, sng nguyt lanIn ngc hnh chim, gng nc lnh

    Sm i bng thp, ngn tin hn.Mun duyn chng vng: xa trn tcMt my no lo: rng nhn quanThu hiu th phi u th cDu ma du Pht, chn no hn?

    Nguyn Hu Chi dch

    Thin s Huyn Quang(1254-1334)c mt bi th v Cha Mt Ctnh sau:

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    SDy Thp HNi(NhBuin)

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    ThngcHNikhaimctrin lm

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    Mttin nh ga xela HNi

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    Bn trong nh ga xela HNi

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    ChngXun

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    STh HNi

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    STh HNi

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    PhHu - HNi

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    H Ty HNi

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    VnMiu HNi

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    Nh trn sng

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    ngChapeaux

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    Cu Long Bin di 1800m

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    QungtrngChava. phatrcKhchSn Mtropole

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    ngGrand March

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    Nh Ht HNi

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    Nh Ht trnil Paul Bert

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    QungtrngHNh (H HonKim)

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    MtchagnHNh (H HonKim)

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    Marngtrnngventails

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    Ccstrongmtcha

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    Mtcha HiPhng

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    Mtcha HiPhng

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    ChaHngYn

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    Lrclng qu

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    MtchaHNi

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    Lrcphth

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    MtchaNinh Bnh

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    ThnhSn Ty

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    Mtropole khng phi l khch sn ra i sm nht nhng chc chn l khch sn ctruyn thng lu bn v tiu biu nht gn vi H Ni. Bui u khi ngi Php chim ng,mt s qun tr xut hin tp trung bn B H v dc Ph Paul Bert (nay l Trng Tin).

    Khchsn Metropole

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    Si Gn, ch mt nm sau khi buc nh Nguyn nhng t, vin Ph c Php,Lagrandire ban hnh quyt nh thnh lp mt Vn Bch Tho v Bch Th vo ngy

    10/6/1863. Cn H Ni, mt khu vn tng t c khi cng vo nm 1890, tc l ch2 nm sau khi H Ni c vua ng Khnh trao cho Php lm thnh ph nhng a.

    Vn BchTho v Bch Th

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    Ban u n ch l mt vn th nghim, c trao cho mt vin dc s hi qun bit phi v SNng lm nghin cu phng thc di thc cc loi tho mc t nc ngoi, nht l t cc thuca chu Phi qua b sung cho cc loi cy trng th v pht trin trng trt. Dn