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Chapter 12 somatic senses and special

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  1. 1. Chapter 12: Somatic Senses and Special Senses 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Somatic Senses and Special Senses Overview of sensations Somatic senses Special senses Olfaction: sense of smell Gustation: sense of taste Vision Hearing and equilibrium 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. Overview of Sensations Sensation is the conscious or subconscious awareness of external and internal stimuli. Two general classes of senses are (1) general senses, which include somatic senses and visceral senses, and (2) special senses, which include smell, taste, vision, hearing, and equilibrium (balance). The conditions for a sensation to occur are reception of a stimulus by a sensory receptor, conversion of the stimulus into one or more nerve impulses, conduction of the impulses to the brain, and integration of the impulses by a region of the brain. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. Overview of Sensations Sensory impulses from each part of the body arrive in specific regions of the cerebral cortex. Adaptation is a decrease in sensation during a prolonged stimulus. Some receptors are rapidly adapting; others are slowly adapting. Receptors can be classified structurally by their microscopic features as free nerve endings, encapsulated nerve endings, or separate cells. Functionally, receptors are classified by the type of stimulus they detect as mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors, nociceptors, photoreceptors, osmoreceptors, and chemoreceptors. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. Definition of Sensation Sensation is the conscious or subconscious awareness of changes in the external or internal environment. For a sensation to occur, four conditions must be satisfied: A stimulus, or change in the environment, capable of activating certain sensory neurons, must occur. A stimulus that activates a sensory receptor may be in the form of light, heat, pressure, mechanical energy, or chemical energy. A sensory receptor must convert the stimulus to an electrical signal, which ultimately produces one or more nerve impulses if it is large enough. The nerve impulses must be conducted along a neural pathway from the sensory receptor to the brain. A region of the brain must receive and integrate the nerve impulses into a sensation. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. Overview of Sensations 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. Overview of Sensations 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  8. 8. Somatic Senses Somatic sensations include tactile sensations (touch, pressure, vibration, itch, and tickle), thermal sensations (heat and cold), pain sensations, and proprioceptive sensations (joint and muscle position sense and movements of the limbs). Receptors for these sensations are located in the skin, mucous membranes, muscles, tendons, and joints. Receptors for touch include Meissner corpuscles, hair root plexuses, Merkel discs, and Ruffini corpuscles. Receptors for pressure and vibration are pacinian corpuscles. Tickle and itch sensations result from stimulation of free nerve endings. Thermoreceptors, free nerve endings in the epidermis and dermis, adapt to continuous stimulation. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  9. 9. Somatic Senses Nociceptors are free nerve endings that are located in nearly every body tissue; they provide pain sensations. Proprioceptors inform us of the degree to which muscles are contracted, the amount of tension present in tendons, the positions of joints, and the orientation of the head. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  10. 10. Somatic Senses 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. Special Senses The special senses include smell, sight, taste, hearing, and equilibrium. Like the general senses, the special senses allow us to detect changes in the environment. Receptors for the special sensessmell, taste, sight, hearing, and equilibriumare housed in complex sensory organs such as the eyes and ears. Like the general senses, the special senses allow us to detect changes in our environment. Ophthalmology (of-thal-MOL--j; ophthalmo- = eye; -logy = study of ) is the science that deals with the eye and its disorders. The other special senses are, in large part, the concern of otorhinolaryngology (-t -r-n-lar-in-GOL--j; oto- = ear; rhino- = nose; laryngo- = larynx), the science that deals with the ears, nose, and throat and their disorders. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Anatomy Overview: You must be connected to the internet to run this animation. The Special Senses
  13. 13. Olfaction: Sense of Smell The olfactory epithelium in the upper portion of the nasal cavity contains olfactory receptors, supporting cells, and basal cells. Individual olfactory receptors respond to hundreds of different odorant molecules by producing an electrical signal that triggers one or more nerve impulses. Adaptation (decreasing sensitivity) to odors occurs rapidly. Axons of olfactory receptors form the olfactory (I) nerves, which convey nerve impulses to the olfactory bulbs. From there, impulses conduct via the olfactory tract to the limbic system, hypothalamus, and cerebral cortex (temporal lobe). 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  14. 14. Olfaction: Sense of Smell 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. Gustation: Sense of Taste The receptors for gustation, the gustatory receptor cells, are located in taste buds. To be tasted, substances must be dissolved in saliva. The five primary tastes are salty, sweet, sour, bitter, and umami. Gustatory receptor cells trigger impulses in the following cranial nerves: facial (VII), glossopharyngeal (IX), and vagus (X). Impulses for taste conduct to the medulla oblongata, limbic system, hypothalamus, thalamus, and the primary gustatory area in the parietal lobe of the cerebral cortex. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  16. 16. Gustation: Sense of Taste 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  17. 17. Vision Accessory structures of the eyes include the eyebrows, eyelids, eyelashes, the lacrimal apparatus (which produces and drains tears), and extrinsic eye muscles (which move the eyes). The eyeball has three layers: (a) fibrous tunic (sclera and cornea), (b) vascular tunic (choroid, ciliary body, and iris), and (c) retina. The retina consists of a neural layer (photoreceptor layer, bipolar cell layer, and ganglion cell layer) and a pigmented layer (a sheet of melanin- containing epithelial cells). The anterior cavity contains aqueous humor; the vitreous chamber contains the vitreous body. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  18. 18. Vision Image formation on the retina involves refraction of light rays by the cornea and lens, which focus an inverted image on the central fovea of the retina. For viewing close objects, the lens increases its curvature (accommodation), and the pupil constricts to prevent light rays from entering the eye through the periphery of the lens. Improper refraction may result from myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), or astigmatism (irregular curvature of the cornea or lens). Movement of the eyeballs toward the nose to view an object is called convergence. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  19. 19. Vision The first step in vision is the absorption of light rays by photopigments in rods and cones (photoreceptors). Stimulation of the rods and cones then activates bipolar cells, which in turn activate the ganglion cells. Nerve impulses arise in ganglion cells and conduct along the optic (II) nerve, through the optic chiasm and optic tract to the thalamus. From the thalamus, impulses extend to the primary visual area in the occipital lobe of the cerebral cortex. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  20. 20. Vision 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  21. 21. Vision 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  22. 22. Structure of the Eyeball 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  23. 23. Vision 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  24. 24. Vision 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  25. 25. Vision 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  26. 26. Vision 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  27. 27. Vision 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  28. 28. Vision 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  29. 29. Vision 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  30. 30. Hearing and Equilibrium The external ear consists of the auricle, external auditory canal, and eardrum. The middle ear consists of the auditory (eustachian) tube, auditory ossicles, and oval window. The internal ear consists of the bony labyrinth and membranous labyrinth. The internal ear contains the spiral organ (organ of Corti), the organ of hearing. Sound waves enter the external auditory canal, strike the eardrum, pass through the ossicles, strike the oval window, set up pressure waves in the perilymph, strike the vestibular membrane and scala tympani, increase pressure in the endolymph, vibrate the basilar membrane, and stimulate hair cells in the spiral organ. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  31. 31. Hearing and Equilibrium Hair cells release neurotransmitter molecules that can initiate nerve impulses in sensory neurons. Sensory neurons in the cochlear branch of the v

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