Classical Opera and Choral Music

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  1. 1. Classical Opera and Choral Music
  2. 2. Italian Opera Seria Christoph Willibald Glucks (171487) opera reforms: Opera seria had to return to basics All elements must be subservient to the overriding drama Strove to achieve simplicity Orfeo ed Euridice (1762) h?v=C1B85UQT4AY
  3. 3. Italian Opera Buffa Was sung in a language of the audience. Was based on daily life situations. Watch segment 10: aspx?xtid=722&psid=0&sid=0&State=&title=Vienna&IsSearch=N &parentSeriesID=# Presence of buffo a bass voice character. Examples W. A. Mozart, Marriage of Figaro (1786) G. Rossini, The Barber of Seville (1816)
  4. 4. German Singspiel Spoken dialogue alternated with ensembles, songs, ballads, and arias. Examples: W. A. Mozart, The Abduction from the Seraglio (1782) Watch segments 5 and 16: xtid=11865&psid=0&sid=0&State=&title=The%20Abduction%20from% 20the%20Seraglio:%20Mozart%20in%20Turkey&IsSearch=N&parentSe riesID=# W. A. Mozart, The Magic Flute (1791)
  5. 5. Classical Choral Forms Mass W. A. Mozart, Great Mass in C Minor (1783) Requiem Massa Mass for the Dead W. A. Mozart, Requiem (1791) Oratorio J. Haydn, The Creation (1798) 3s
  6. 6. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (17561791) Was competent on keyboard and violin and composed at the age of five. One of Viennese Classicist. Composed over 600 works, many acknowledged as pinnacles of genres.
  7. 7. Early Life Father Leopold Mozart was a musician and an experienced violin teacher. Sister Nannerl was a pianist and the family made several European journeys in which children performed as prodigies. Mozarts birthplace in Salzburg, Austria
  8. 8. Employment at the Salzburg Court (177377) Was employed as a court musician by the ruler of Salzburg, Prince-Archibishop Colloredo. Wrote five Violin Concertos. mpositions/violin-concerto-no-3-in-g-wolfgang- amadeus-mozart/ Low salary and luck of occasion for opera performances led to resignation.
  9. 9. The Paris Journey (177778), Vienna Visited Augsburg, Mannheim, Paris, and Munich. Settled in Vienna as a freelance performer and composer. Married Constanze Weber in 1782. Had six children, two of whom survived infancy. Became a Freemason in 1784. Composed operas. In 1787 obtained a part-time post of chamber composer under aristocratic patronage of Emperor Joseph II.
  10. 10. Later Years Mozarts financial circumstances worsened. Composed last three symphonies and operas. Became ill while in Prague for the premiere of his opera La clemenza di Tito. Was mentally occupied with the task of finishing Requiem. Watch segment 11: iewVideo.aspx?xtid=722&psid=0&sid=0&State=&title= Vienna&IsSearch=N&parentSeriesID=# The cause of Mozarts death is uncertain. Was buried in a common grave.
  11. 11. Major Compositions Operas: Lucio Silla, The Marriage of Figaro, Don Giovanni, The Magic Flute, and others Vocal: Requiem, Oratories, and Cantatas For Orchestra: Symphonies, Serenades, and Divertimentos Concertos For Different Instruments and Orchestra: More that 30 for Piano and Orchestra 5 for Violin and Orchestra 4 for Horn and Orchestra Chamber Music: 6 String Quintets, more that 20 String Quartets, more than 30 Sonatas for Violin and Piano, Trios, Variations, Minuets, Rondos, Fantasias, and many other works
  12. 12. Video Assignment Please watch this video and take notes. You will be asked to reflect on Mozarts life and legacy using this knowledge. aspx?xtid=29999&psid=0&sid=0&State=&title=Wolfgang%20Am adeus%20Mozart&IsSearch=N&parentSeriesID=
  13. 13. Required Readings:
  14. 14. Optional Video Assignments xtid=42108&psid=0&sid=0&State=&title=Le%20Nozze%20di%20Figaro - From%20the%20Royal%20Opera%20House&IsSearch=N&parentSeries ID= xtid=11865&psid=0&sid=0&State=&title=The%20Abduction%20from% 20the%20Seraglio:%20Mozart%20in%20Turkey&IsSearch=N&parentSe riesID=# xtid=722&psid=0&sid=0&State=&title=Vienna&IsSearch=N&parentSeri esID=#