13381854 Fundpsih Golu

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  • UNIVERSITATEA SPIRU HARET FACULTATEA DE PSIHOLOGIE-SOCIOLOGIE

    Prof. univ. dr. Mihai Golu

    FUNDAMENTELE PSIHOLOGIEI

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    I. OBIECTUL PSIHOLOGIEI

    3VLKRORJLDFDWLLQ LQGHSHQGHQWV-a constituit relativ trziu, certificatul ei GHQDWHUHILLQGVHPQDWvQSULQvQILLQ DUHDOD/HLS]LJGHFWUHVDYDQWXOJHUPDQWilhelm Wundt, a primului laborator bazat pe utilizarea metodei experimentale.

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    DRULHQWDUHDFDUHUHGXFHDSVLKLFXOXPDQODFRQWLLQ LFDUHVXV LQHDFRELHFWXOpsLKRORJLHL vO UHSUH]LQW VWXGLXO FRQWLLQ HL UHVSHFWLY DO SURFHVHORU SVLKLFHFRQWLHQWH

    ERULHQWDUHDFDUHVXV LQHDFHOHPHQWXOHVHQ LDOLGHWHUPLQDQWDOYLH LLSVLKLFHDRPXOXLHVWHLQFRQWLHQWXODFHVWDWUHEXLQGFKLSXULOHVUHSUH]LQWHSULQFLSDOXl domeniu GH SUHRFXSDUH DO SVLKRORJLHL SVLKRORJLD DELVDO VDX SVLKDQDOL]D HODERUDW GHS. Freud);

    F RULHQWDUHD FDUH VXV LQHD F DGHYUDWD L DXWHQWLFD UHDOLWDWH SVLKRORJLF RFRQVWLWXLH UHDF LLOH H[WHUQH GH UVSXQV VHFUHWRULL L PRWRULL OD DF LXQHD GLYHULORUVWLPXOL GLQ PHGLX L FD DWDUH RELHFWXO SVLKRORJLHL WUHEXLH V ILH VWXGLXOcomportamentului (behaviorismul, creat de savantul american J. B. Watson, n 1912/1913).

    Q SUH]HQW DX IRVW GHSLWH OLPLWULOH L DEVROXWL]ULOH SH FDUH se bazau RULHQWULOHPHQ LRQDWH$VWIHOVHDGPLWHFVIHUDQR LXQLLGHSVLKLFXPDQHVWHPDLODUJ GHFkW VIHUD QR LXQLL GH FRQWLLQ HD LQFOX]kQG vQWU-R UHOD LRQDUH GH WLSVLVWHPLFWUHLFRPSRQHQWHLQFRQWLHQWXOVXEFRQWLHQWXOLFRQWLHQWXOWRDWHvPSUHXQformnd domeniul de studiu al psihologiei.

    3H GH DOW SDUWH SODQXO VXELHFWLY SVLKLF LQWHUQ L SODQXO RELHFWLYFRPSRUWDPHQWDOH[WHUQQXVHPDLUXSDUWLILFLDOXQXOGHFHOODOWLQXVHPDLRSXQFDHQWLW L DQWDJRQLFH LUHGXFWLELOH GLPSRWULY VH UHFXQRDWH L VH DILUP XQLWDWHDLQGLVRFLDELODORUVXEHJLGDSULQFLSLXOXLXQLW LLFRQWLLQ -activitate.

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    3VLKRORJLD XPDQ DUH OD UkQGXO HL R ODWXU JHQHUDO FDUH QH RIHU WDEORXOJOREDO DO RUJDQL]ULL SVLKRFRPSRUWDPHQWDOH D RPXOXL QRUPDO PHGLX IFkQGDEVWUDF LH GH YkUVW VH[ FRQWH[W VRFLR-FXOWXUDO RFXSD LH SURIHVLH HWF L R ODWXUparticular-GLIHUHQ LDOFDUHVHFHQWUHD]SHVWXGLXOLH[SOLFDUHDLSRVWD]HORUFRQFUHWHn care se poate afla organizarea pVLKRFRPSRUWDPHQWDO vQ IXQF LH GH YkUVW VH[mediu socio-FXOWXUDODFWLYLWDWHSURIHVLRQDOQLYHOGHGH]YROWDUHQDWXUDGHYLD LLORULWXOEXUULORU SDWRORJLFH SVLKRORJLD JHQHWLF L D GH]YROWULL SVLKRORJLD YkUVWHORU

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    METODELE PSIHOLOGIEI

    1. SpeciILFXO FXQRDWHULL SVLKRORJLFH 0RGHOXO WUDGL LRQDO DO FXQRDWHULLWLLQ LILFH FRQVWLWXLW VXE DXWRULWDWHD PHFDQLFLL L IL]LFLL FODVLFH IRUPXOD FHULQ D FDRULFHGRPHQLXOXDWFDRELHFWGHVWXGLXVSRVHGHSURSULHW LQHPLMORFLWREVHUYDELOHLperceptibilHFDUHVSRDWILPVXUDWHLFXDQWLILFDWH

    3VLKLFXOFDDWDUHHVWHOLSVLWGHDVHPHQHDSURSULHW LHOQXDUHQLFLOXQJLPHQLFLgrosime, nici volum, nici greutate, nici miros, nici gust. Singura dimensiune, care se UHFXQRWHD SURFHVHORU L WULULORU SVLKice era durata; dar, numai pe baza ei, nu era SRVLELO FRQVWUXLUHD XQXL VLVWHP FRPSOHW GH FRRUGRQDWH L PVXUWRUL FDUH V ILHtratabil matematic.

    Acesta era principalul argument invocat de marele filosof german Immanuel Kant, pentru a respinge n mod categoric posibilitatea desprinderii psihologiei de ILORVRILHLFRQVWLWXLUHDHLvQWU-RWLLQ LQGHSHQGHQW

    QDFHVWHFRQGL LL FDXQLFPRGDOLWDWHGHRE LQHUHDGDWHORUQHFHVDUHGHVFULHULLFRQ LQXWXULORU L VWULORU SVLKLFH LQWHUQH DOH FRQWLLQ HL HUD FRQVLGHUDW metoda LQWURVSHF LHL (privirea cu propriul ochi interior spre ceea ce se petrece n momentul GDWSH VFHQDFRQWLLQ HL L UHODWDUHDYHUEDO D FHORUFRQVWDWDWH3VLKRORJLDED]DWSHXWLOL]DUHDH[FOXVLYDDFHVWHLPHWRGHDSULPLWGHQXPLUHDGHLQWURVSHF LRQLVWLHDV-a DILUPDWSXWHUQLF vQXOWLPHOHGRXGHFHQLLDOHVHFROXOXL;,;LvQSULPHOHWUHLGHFHQLLDOHVHFROXOXL;;7K/LSSV1$FK2.&OSH0DUEH(G7LWFKHQHU

    3HQWUX D VDWLVIDFH FHULQ D REVHUYDELOLW LL QHPLMORFLWH EHKDYLRULVPXO D DUXncat SHVWH ERUG OXPHD VXELHFWLY LQWHUQ D FRQWLLQ HL UH LQkQG FD RELHFW DO FXQRDWHULLSVLKRORJLFHUHDF LLOHGHUVSXQVDOHVXELHFWXOXLODVWLPXOLLRELHFWLYLGLQDIDUDUDDcum se va remarca ulterior, procednd astfel, behaviorismul a constituit o psihologie IUVXIOHWRSVLKRORJLHQXDRPXOXLVXELHFWFLDRPXOXLURERW,HLUHDGLQDFHVWLPSDVPHWRGRORJLF HVWHSRVLELO QXPDL vQPVXUD vQFDUH VHDGPLWHFRFXQRDWHUHWLLQ LILFSRDWHVDLEQXQXPDLXQFDUDFWHUQHPLMORFLWFLLXQXOPLMlocit, observarea obiectului realizndu-VHLQGLUHFWSULQLQWHUPHGLXOXQRUHIHFWHLIHQRPHQHSULQFDUHHOVHPDQLIHVWLVHH[SULP

    &XQRDWHUHDSVLKRORJLFGHYLQHSULQH[FHOHQ RFXQRDWHUHPLMORFLWGDWHOHLLQIRUPD LD RELHFWLY GHVSUH QDWXUD FRQ LQXWXO L GLQDPLFD SURFHVHORU SVLKLFHSDUWLFXODUH VH RE LQ SH ED]D REVHUYULL vQUHJLVWUULL L DQDOL]HL UVSXQVXULORU LFRQGXLWHORUVXELHFWXOXLvQVLWXD LLRELHFWLYHFRQFUHWH

    2. Metodele psihologiei &XQRDWHUHD SVLKRORJLF VH UHDOL]HD] SULQ XWLOL]DUHDuQXL ODUJ UHSHUWRULX GH PHWRGH L SURFHGHH XS SR]L LD SH FDUH R DX ID GHIHQRPHQXOVWXGLDWPHWRGHOHSVLKRORJLHLOHvPSU LPvQGRXJUXSHSDVLYHLDFWLYH

    Pasive VXQW FRQVLGHUDWH DFHOH PHWRGH FDUH VH DGUHVHD] IHQRPHQHORU D FURUGHFODQDUH VH SURGXFH VSRQWDQ vQ VLWXD LD FRQFUHW vQ FDUH VH DIO VXELHFWXO vQmomentul dat. n rndul lor includem: PHWRGDREVHUYD LHLLPHWRGDELRJUDILF.

    ActiveVXQWPHWRGHOHSULQFDUHFHUFHWWRUXODF LRQHD]GLUHFWDVXSUDVXELHFWXOXLL SURYRDF PDQLIHVWDUHD SURFHVXOXL SVLKLF D WUVWXULL GH SHUVRQDOLWDWH VDX DFRPSRUWDPHQWXOXL SURSXV SHQWUX D IL VWXGLDW LQ DFHDVW FDWHJRULH IDF SDUWHexperimentul de laborator, experimentul natural, ancheta, chestionarul, analiza SURGXVHORUDFWLYLW LLWHVWHOHsau probele psihometrice0HWRGDFHQWUDOvQFHUFHWDUHD

  • 4

    SVLKRORJLFWUHEXLHFRQVLGHUDWexperimentul de laborator(OGHSHWHWRDWHFHOHODOWHPHWRGH vQ SUHFL]LH RELHFWLYLWDWH L JUDG GH FRQWURODELOLWDWH D YDULDELOHORU 0HWRGDH[SHULPHQWDO SHUPLWH FHUFHWWRUXOXL V LQWHUYLQ DFWLY L V SURYRDFH IHQRPHQXOVWXGLDWV L]ROH]HVGR]H]HLVFRQWUROH]HYDULDELOHOH independente, dependente LLQWHUPHGLDUHVPRGLILFHLVYDULH]HFRQGL LLOHGHPDQLIHVWDUHDIHQRPHQXOXLVcompare rezultatele grupului experimental cu cele ale grupului de control, care nu a IRVWVXSXVUHJLPXOXLH[SHULPHQWDOVUHSHWHDFHODLPRGHOH[SHULPHQWDOGHPDLPXOWHRUL SH DFHODL VXELHFW VDX JUXS GH VXELHF L V UHOHYH FRQGL LRQDUHD UHFLSURF GLQWUHvariabile.

    Ca limite ale experimentului de labRUDWRU VH PHQ LRQHD] FDUDFWHUXO UHODWLYDUWLILFLDODOVLWXD LHLvQFDUHHVWHSODVDWVXELHFWXOL]RODUHDDFHVWXLDGHFRQWH[WXOQDWXUDODOH[LVWHQ HLLDFWLYLW LLVDOHQXSRDWHILIRORVLW vQPRGXQLYHUVDOH[LVWkQGDQXPLWHfenomene psihocomportamentale care nu pot fi provocate sau nu se permite, din punct GHYHGHUHHWLFVVHSURYRDFHH[SHULPHQWDO

    3. 6WUDWHJLL vQ FHUFHWDUHD SVLKRORJLF )LLQG VXERUGRQDW XQRU RELHFWLYH LILQDOLW L FX VHPQLILFD LH JHQHUDO FHUFHWDUHD SVLKRORJLF GREkQGHWH XQ FDUDFWHr FRQWLQXXLVLVWHPDWLF(DQXVHUHGXFHODVLPSOHH[SORUULVHFYHQ LDOHLQGHSHQGHQWHXQHOHGHDOWHOHFLVHUHDOL]HD]FDXQGHPHUVLQWHJUDWvQWHPHLDWSHDQXPLWHSULQFLSLLLFRQVLGHUD LL PHWRGRORJLFH JHQHUDOH 8Q DVHPHQHD GHPHUV vO QXPLP VWUDWHJLH GHFHUFHWDUH&RPSOH[LWDWHDLGLYHUVLWDWHDIHQRPHQHORUSVLKRFRPSRUWDPHQWDOHDXGXVODVWUXFWXUDUHDPDLPXOWRUWLSXULGHVWUDWHJLLLDQXPH a) strategii transversaleFDUHFRQVWDXvQVWXGLXOQLYHOXOXLGHGH]YROWDUHLIXQF LRQDUHDRUJDQL]ULLSVLKRFRPSRUWDPHQWDOHODLQGLYL]LGHDFHHDLYkUVW b) strategii longitudinale FDUH UH]LG vQ VWXGLXO RUJDQL]ULL SVLKRFRPSRUWDPHQWDOH DXQXL LQGLYLG VDX JUXS GH LQGLYL]L SH SDUFXUVXO PDL PXOWRU HWDSH GH YkUVW GHexemplu: la vrsta de 3 ani, la vrsta de 5 ani, la vrsta de 7 ani, la vrsta de 11 ani HWF IRORVLQG DVHPHQHD VWUDWHJLL VH SRW LGHQWLILFD L VWDELOL SDUWLFXODULW LOH FXUEHLHYROX LHLSVLKLFHDPSOLWXGLQHDGLIHUHQ HORUGLQWUHHWDSHOHGHYkUVW c) strategii genetice SULQ FDUH VH XUPUHWH FXQRDWHUHDPHFDQLVPHORU OHJLW LORU LIDFWRULORU IRUPULL L GH]YROWULL SURFHVHORU SVLKLFH L FRPSRUWDPHQWHORU n plan LVWRULFILORJHQHWLFLvQSODQLQGLYLGXDORQWRJHQHWLF d) VWUDWHJLLGLIHUHQ LDOHSULQFDUHVHHYLGHQ LD]LVHHYDOXHD]GHRVHELULOHGHRUdin FDOLWDWLY vQ RUJDQL]DUHD SVLKRFRPSRUWDPHQWDO vQWUH RP L DQLPDO FRSLO L DGXOWEUEDW L IHPHLH QRUPDO L SDWRORJLF vQWUHSHUVRDQHGHDFHHDLYkUVW L DFHODL VH[HWFVWXGLXOGHRVHELULORULQWHULQGLYLGXDOHLLQWHUJUXSDOHHVWHODIHOGHLPSRUWDnt pentru FXQRDWHUHD SVLKLFXOXL vQ WRDW FRPSOH[LWDWHD VD FD L VWXGLXO DVHPQULORU Laspectelor comune; e) strategii clinice FDUH DX FD VFRS VWXGLXO L H[SOLFDUHD DEDWHULORU L WXOEXUULORUSDWRORJLFHvQVIHUDSVLKLFXOXLLFRPSRUWDPHQWXOXLFDX]DWHGe focare organice sau de GHUHJOULIXQF LRQDOHDOHFUHLHUXOXL

    III. PRINCIPIILE METODOLOGICE ALE PSIHOLOGIEI

    &XQRDWHUHD SVLKRORJLF VH FHUH D IL RULHQWDW L FRRUGRQDW GH XQ VHW GHSULQFLSLLPHWRGRORJLFHJHQHUDOHFDUHVDVLJXUHFRRUGRQDWHOHGHUHIHULQ DOHDQDOL]HLLLQWHUSUHWULLIHQRPHQHORUFRQFUHWH(VHQ LDOHVXQWXUPWRDUHOHSULQFLSLL

    a. determinismului (extern); b. UHOD LRQULLQHXUR-psihice; c. UHIOHFWULLLPRGHOULLLQIRUPD LRQDOH d. DF LXQLLLDOXQLW LLFRQWLLQ -activ

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