BASIC CONCEPTS DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS INFERENTIAL STATISTICS basic concepts descriptive statistics. inferential statistics. ... 3. งานว

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  • ... M.D., Ph.D. http://home.kku.ac.th/sompong1

    STATISTICSBASIC CONCEPTS

    DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICSINFERENTIAL STATISTICS

    ... M.D., Ph.D.http://home.kku.ac.th/sompong

    http://home.kku.ac.th/sompong

  • ... M.D., Ph.D. http://home.kku.ac.th/sompong2

    Scales of measurement Distribution, Central tendency Variability, Probability Prevalence, Incidence Disease outcomes

    Fatality rates Confidence intervals Association

    Pearson chi-square, Fishers exact test 4 P-value

  • ... M.D., Ph.D. http://home.kku.ac.th/sompong3

    (2550)

    5

    .

    SMJ 2550; 22: 254-60.

    http://www.smj.ejnal.com/e-journal/showdetail/?show_detail=T&art_id=1261

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    15 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

    ()

    )

    )

    )

    )

    1

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    35-45

    28-34

    0-27

    1

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    2

    = + () =

    outcome = unhappiness

    (unhappiness)

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    % (, ) (. 4, 5, 6) (, ) (, , , ) 1 , , ,

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    %

    Pearson chi-square Fishers exact test

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    Mean standard deviation Median interquartile range

    () GPA (Grade Point Average) () () ()

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    T-test Mann-Whitney U test

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    N % OR 95% CI P-value

    -

    -

    159

    254

    17.0

    5.5

    3.51

    1.00

    1.70, 7.31

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    (SPSS)

    Happiness vs. Gender

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    ()

    N % OR 95% CI P-value

    - -

    335

    78

    8.4

    16.7

    0.46

    1.00

    0.21, 0.99

    0.027 *

    - -

    301

    112

    8.6

    13.4

    0.61

    1.00

    0.30, 1.27

    0.151 *

    * Pearson chi-square

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    ()

    N % OR 95% CI P-value

    -

    -

    -

    -

    -

    340

    18

    37

    18

    7.9

    22.2

    24.3

    5.6

    1.00

    3.31

    3.73

    0.68

    1.02, 10.76

    1.60, 8.70

    0.09 , 5.32

    0.006*

    * Fishers exact test

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    ()

    N % OR 95% CI P-value

    - -

    40

    373

    17.5

    9.1

    2.11

    1.00

    0.79, 5.48

    0.098 *

    - -

    64

    349

    42.2

    4.0

    17.46

    1.00

    7.97, 38.73

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    ()

    N % OR 95% CI P-value

    -

    -

    121

    292

    27.3

    2.7

    13.31

    1.00

    5.63, 32.56

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    ()

    N % OR 95% CI P-value

    - -

    82

    331

    12.2

    9.4

    1.34

    1.00

    0.59, 3.02

    0.443 *

    * Pearson chi-square

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    ()

    P-value

    -

    Median (IQR)

    - Min, Max

    16.0 (1.0)

    15.0,

    19.0

    17.0 (1.0)

    14.0, 19.0

    0.070 *

    GPA

    -

    Median (IQR)

    - Min, Max

    2.98

    (0.81)

    1.75,

    3.77

    3.26

    (0.68)

    1.24,

    4.00

    0.027

    *

    * Mann-Whitney U test

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    ()

    P-value (hr/wk)

    -

    Median (IQR)

    - Min, Max

    3.0

    (10.0)

    0.0,

    32.0

    4.0

    (8.0)

    0.0, 26.0

    0.605

    *

    (hr)

    -

    Median (IQR)

    - Min, Max

    7.0 (1.0)

    4.0, 9.0

    7.0 (2.0)

    3.0, 11.0

    0.457

    *

    * Mann-Whitney U test

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    ()

    P-value (hr)

    -

    Median (IQR)

    -

    Min, Max

    8.0, 3.0

    4.0, 12.0

    8.0 (2.0)

    0, 14

    0.468

    * Mann-Whitney U test

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    ERROR: TYPE I, II

    Type II

    Type I

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    CONFOUNDING FACTOR MODIFYING FACTOR

    AND INTERACTION

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    27 37

    14 335

    16 18

    11 114

    11 19

    3 221

    + - + -

    + -+-

    +-

    +-

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    Odds ratio 95% CI

    Adjusted odds ratio

    (95%

    CI)

    17.46 7.97,

    38.7315.77

    (9.67,

    29.24) 9.21 3.38,

    25.57

    42.65 42.65,

    249.33

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    RISK FACTOR PROTECTIVE FACTOR

    VS. PROMOTIVE FACTOR

    OBSTRUCTIVE FACTOR

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    RR OR RR (OR) > 1

    Bad outcome: Good outcome:

    RR (OR) < 1 Bad outcome: Good outcome:

    RR (OR) =1 outcome

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    MULTIPLE LOGISTIC REGRESSION

    TO DETERMINERISK / PROTECTIVE FACTOR

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    8. POTENTIAL SIGNIFICANT FACTORS (P-value 0.250) P-value

    FACTOR P-VALUE1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.9.

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    MODEL

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    RISK DIFFERENCE

    attributable risk absolute risk Risk1 Risk2

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    27 37

    14 335

    + -+-

    41

    372

    413

    64

    349

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    RISK REDUCTION

    Relative risk reduction RR, OR intervention study 1

    Absolute risk reduction risk difference intervention study Control event rate

    Experiment event rate number needed to treat

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    NUMBER NEEDED TO TREAT

    one additional bad outcome

    1 / absolute risk reduction

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    NUMBER NEEDED TO HARM

    1

    1 / risk difference

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    CORRELATION

    vs.

    statistical significance

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    PEARSON CORRELATION

    Correlations

    1 -.154**.003

    364 362-.154** 1.003362 410

    Pearson CorrelationSig. (2-tailed)NPearson CorrelationSig. (2-tailed)N

    GPA

    Student's income

    GPAStudent'sincome

    Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).**.

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    SPEARMAN CORREALTION KENDALL TAU CORRELATION

    Correlations

    1.000 -.126**. .003

    364 362-.126** 1.000.003 .362 410

    1.000 -.154**. .003

    364 362-.154** 1.000.003 .362 410

    Correlation CoefficientSig. (2-tailed)NCorrelation CoefficientSig. (2-tailed)NCorrelation CoefficientSig. (2-tailed)NCorrelation CoefficientSig. (2-tailed)N

    GPA

    Student's income

    GPA

    Student's income

    Kendall's tau_b

    Spearman's rho

    GPAStudent'sincome

    Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).**.

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    STATISTICS 15 % % Slide Number 12 () () () () () () () ()ERROR: TYPE I, IICONFOUNDING FACTOR MODIFYING FACTOR ANDINTERACTIONRISK FACTORPROTECTIVE FACTORVS.PROMOTIVE FACTOROBSTRUCTIVE FACTOR RR ORMULTIPLELOGISTIC REGRESSION8. POTENTIAL SIGNIFICANT FACTORS(P-value 0.250) P-value MODEL RISK DIFFERENCERISK REDUCTIONNUMBER NEEDED TO TREATNUMBER NEEDED TO HARMCORRELATIONPEARSON CORRELATIONSPEARMAN CORREALTIONKENDALL TAU CORRELATION