Budidaya Kelapa Sawit

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Perkebunan

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  • Tentang Kelapa Sawit

    Tahapan Pembangunan Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit

    Manajemen Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit

    Profesi Sebagai PlanterPresentation Outline

  • Tentang Kelapa Sawit(Elaeis guneensis)Origin: West Africa

  • Siklus HidupTanaman tahunan

    Di alam bebas mampu hidup 200 th. Tetapi secara komersial umumnya dipelihara 20 30 th.

    Fase Pengembangan:- Pembibitan 10 12 bln- TBM 24 30 bln- TM: 3 10 th (tren produksi naik) 10 16 th (produksi puncak) 16 25 th (tren produksi turun)

  • FlowerBunga

  • Bagian yg DipanenTandan buah segar (TBS) atau Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB). Berat tandan rata-rata tergantung umur tanaman , varietas dan ligkungan.Umumnya:- sekitar 5 kg pada tanaman umur 3 th- hingga 50 kg tanaman umur >10 th, untuk tanaman individu bahkan ada yg 100 kg

  • Oil Palm Fruit

  • Crude Palm Oil Crude Palm Kernel OilRBD PKORBD Palm Oil

  • Penggunaan Minyak Kelapa SawitVarious Applications and Uses

    Food Uses 80%

    Non-food Uses - 20%

  • MAJOR USES IN FOOD PALM OIL AND ITS PRODUCTS COOKING OILVANASPATIMARGARINESHORTENING

  • Other Food UsesSource: MPOB

  • Non-Food UsesFoto: MPOB

  • Palm Oil Biodiesel

  • Oil Palm Estate

  • Tahapan Pembangunan Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit

  • Survey kesesuaian lahan dan topografi

    Perizinan lahan

    Perencanaan lokasi Kebutuhan kecambahPerencanaan

  • 1 - 7Kebutuhan Kecambah

    Sheet1

    KLASIFIKASIKERAPATANKEBUTUHAN

    TANAM/HAKECAMBAH/HA

    PLASMA128205

    KKPA130205

    INTI :LAHAN S1128205

    LAHAN S2136215

    LAHAN S3136215

    LAHAN GAMBUT160250

    REPL. Eks GANODERMA148235

    Sheet2

    Sheet3

  • A. Penentuan lokasi, harus mempertimbangkan :Ketersediaan air yang bermutu baik dan bersihLokasi diusahakan datar, berdrainase baik dan tidak banjirTersedia top soil untuk pengisian polybagAman dari segala gangguan

    B. Perhitungan luas bibitanLuas 1 ha bibitan dapat menampung 12.000 bibit (Jarak antar polybag 90 cm dengan bentuk segitiga sama sisi)

    C. Sistem pembibitan :Perusahaan hanya menerapkan cara pembibitan dua tahap

  • Pre Nursery :Tempat pemeliharaan bibit selama 3 bulan pertama Ukuran polybag yang digunakan 0,075 mm x 15 cm x 23 cm

    Main NurseryTransplanting ke MN dilakukan pada bibit yang berumur 3 4 bulanUkuran polybag yang digunakan 0,15 mm x 40 cm x 50 cm

  • Penanaman Kecambah

  • Penyiraman

  • Umur 3 Bulan, Pindah ke Main Nursery

  • Irigasi Sprinkler di Main Nursery

  • Bibit Umur 10 12 Bulan, Siap Tanam

  • Land Clearing dan PenamanMEKANISKIMIAMANUAL

  • Pemancangan

  • PenanamanPenanaman yang baik dilapangan akan menghasilkan tanaman yang sehat dan seragam.

    Tanaman akan lebih cepat berproduksi dengan hasil awal yang tinggi dan mengurangi pusingan kastrasi yang berulangkali.

  • Replanting

  • Tanam Sawit dan Kacangan

  • Penanaman LCC

  • Tanaman Belum Menghasilkan / TBM

    Pegendalian gulmaKonsolidasiPenyisipanPemupukanPengendalian hama penyakitPersiapan panen

  • TBM di Areal Teras

  • Tanaman Muda yg Sehat dan Subur

  • Pasar Rintis/Pasar Panen/Pasar Pikul

  • Cara Pengendalian GulmaSecara ManualSecara KimiaPenanaman kacangan

  • PenyisipanDilakukan saat tanaman masih relatif muda, 3 4 tahun.

  • PanenBuah PasirSiap Panen Perdana

  • Kriteria Kemasakan Buah

  • DERAJAT KEMATANGAN BUAH (FRAKSI)Fraksi Brondolan lepas dari tandan Kematangan buah00 Belum ada Sangat mentah0 < 1 brondolan/kg TBS Mentah1 12.5-25,5 %buah luar Kurang matang 2 25-50% buah luar Matang 13 50-75 % buah luar Matang 24 75 100 % buah luar Lewat matang5 Buah bagian dalam Lewat matang ikut memberondol

  • Alat PanenPohon rendah = dodosPohon tinggi = egrek

  • Mekanisasi Panen

  • Pemupukan

  • Pupuk Organik

  • WAKTU DAN TEMPAT Apply Urea during the wetter season but on a dry day if possibleApply Rock Phosphate, MOP and Kieserite in drier periods.However Dolomite must always be applied atleast 4 weeks later than the Urea.Every effort should be made to preventerosion and run off by maintaining a good cover and placing frond carefully.

  • Deteksi Hama Penyakit

  • Pest and Disease ControlManualChemicalBiologicalIntegrated Pest Management

  • Chemical

  • Biological Control

  • Tanaman Inang

  • Manajemen Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit

  • STRUKTUR JABATAN DI PERKEBUNAN(Contoh: Sinar Mas Group)

  • Estate OrganizationBasic methods of organizing control of an estate:

    - by area: estate divided into sections or divisions- by job function: each assistant manager having a specified job responsibility over the whole area of the estate

  • By Divisions (also called Afdeling)One division consist of 800 1.500 haOne Assistant Manager + subordinatesOne emplacement with ca. 200 workers

  • By Job FunctionLand Clearing AssistantNursery AssistantUpkeep AssistantHarvesting AssistantTransportation Assistant

  • Labour and Staffing RequirementsLabour requirements:

    Ratio: 0.12 for immature (1.2 labour/ha)

    Ratio: 0.20 for mature (2 labours/ha)

  • Staffing RequirementsGeneral Manager: overall management controll.Estate Manager: overall supervision and controll of the estates operationMill Manager: responsible for the administration and technical maintenance of the mill and workshop, process control and product storage.

  • Recruitment, Qualifications and TrainingRecruitment and PromotionTraining and Skills:Plantation executives Supervisory, clerical and technical staffField supervisors, foremen and operatorsExtension workersIndustrial Relations

  • Training

  • Work Organization and ProgrammesPlanningAnnual work programmesMonthly work programmesInspection and advisory servicesCompany policy circulars

  • Estate RecordsEmployee recordsTransport and stores recordsCrop and production recordsAccount booksSurvey records and field history recordsBuilding maintenance recordsPlant, machinery and vehicle log booksInventories

  • Estate ReturnsThe Progress ReportPeriodic AccountsEstate AccountsCompany AccountsAnnual InventoriesAnnual ReportAnnual EstimatesPlanning for the Future

  • Profesi Sebagai Planters

    Bangun pagi, pukul 05.00 WIB sudah berada di antrian pagi

    Sesekali memperagakan cara mengerjakan suatu pekerjaan, terutama pekerjaan yg baru/karyawan baru

    Wolon (jam makan pagi) sifatnya fleksibel

    Pupuk yg paling utama bagi tanaman adalah telapak kaki asisten

    Jam kerja tidak terbatas

    Maksimalisasi produksi dan minimalisasi cost

    Administrasi harus up to date

    Koordinasi.

  • The Planter

  • Botanist

    MorphologyPhysiologyEcologyGenetic

  • Chemist

    FertilizerHerbisidePestiside

  • Health Care

    First AidEmergencySanitation

  • Engineer

  • Surveying

    GIS (Geographic Information System)CompassMappingNavigationSurvivalLandscapingEtc.

  • Bricklaying

  • Book Keeper

    PayrollInventoriesGeneral LedgerBalance SheetBudgetingFinancial ReportEtc.

  • Architect

  • Planter

    A Planter must be a/an:PhysicianLecturerAgronomistNomadTechnicianEconomistReporter

  • Planter as a Chief Cookies

    Man + Money + Material + Machine + Method = No ProblemMan + Money + Material + Machine Method = ?Man + Money + Material Machine + Method = ?Man + Money Material + Machine + Method = ?Man Money + Material + Machine + Method = ?

    In practice, actually point no. 2 5 always happen in oil palm plantation project. So, you must prepare for that.

  • Planter

    A Planter must be a partner of local culture

    A Planter must be an anthropologist

  • Managerial skill

    A planter must has a managerial skill:Conceptual skillTechnical skillInter-personal skill

  • Challenge in Oil Palm Plantation

    Labour shortagesThe increasing difficulties in maintaining the discipline necessary to ensure efficient operationThe shortage of dedicated executive staff and subordinate officersThe effective maintenance of quality control of plantation productsCompetition from the low cost producing countriesLimitation of land availability and suitability

  • Twenty-Two Tips forPractical Oil Palm PlantersBy E. Mutert and T.H. Fairhurst

    Nursery phase

    Select a suitable source of soil for bag filling (i.e., loamy soil, but not peat or heavy clay soil).Select an appropriate irrigation system, based on the characteristics of the water supply (e.g., silt load, quantity available).Incorporate sufficient phosphorus (P) fertilizer in the soil to be used for bag filling.Maintain a properly designed program of nursery fertilizer application and apply fertilizers carefully to avoid leaf scorch. Do not over apply fertilizer.Install a system of open drains to prevent standing water after irrigation events. Inst