Công nghệ xử lý chất thải

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B GIO DC V O TO

TRNG I HC CN TH KHOA CNG NGH--- oOo ---

BI GING MN HC

CNG TRNH X L NC THI(Wastewater Treatment Works)GIO TRNH DNG CHO CC SINH VIN CHUYN NGNH K THUT MI TRNG

Bin son

L ANH TUN- 2005 -

Gio trnh CNG TRNH X L NC THI L Anh Tun ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

LI M U--- oOo --Con ngi l mt trong cc sinh vt sng trong t nhin v l mt phn ca h sinh thi mi trng. Cc hot ng ca con ngi ngy cng tc ng n mi trng sng cng r rt. Nc thi t cc hot ng sn xut, sinh hot ang l mt trong cc nguy c lm nhim v hy hot mi trng sng. Vic hn ch v ngn chn nhim do nc thi l mt trong cc yu cu quan trng ca k thut mi trng. Bi ging mn hc CNG TRNH X L NC THI ny dnh cho cc sinh vin chuyn ngnh K thut Mi trng. Bi ging t trng tm cho sinh vin cc nguyn l tnh ton v thit k c bn cho mt s hng mc cng trnh x l nc thi. Sinh vin hc mn hc ny cn bt buc thc hin thm 1 n mn hc, c xem nh mt chuyn nghin cu thc t (case study). Mn hc c 2 phn: Phn l thuyt c 2 tn ch (30 tit) v phn n 1 tn ch. Phn n s thc hin sau khi hc phn l thuyt. Trong iu kin cho php, Khoa Cng ngh s phi hp vi ging vin t chc cho sinh vin i thm mt s chuyn ving thm cc cng trnh x l nc thi trong khu vc. Cc thut ng s dng trong bi ging l cc t tng i quen thuc trong nc. trnh nhm ln, mt s thut ng c phn ch thch ting Anh i km. Ngoi cc bi ging chnh, sinh vin c th tham kho thm mt s ti liu tham kho trnh by cui gio trnh. Sinh vin c th s dng cc ti liu tham kho nh mt ti liu th hai cho vic b sung kin thc ca mnh. Ti liu ny bin son da vo nhiu ti liu tham kho v nghin cu khc nhau m ngi vit tch ly c. Mt s v d, hnh v, cu gii thch ... trong bi ging c trch dch t cc ti liu ca cc tc gi trong ti liu tham kho. Do khng c iu kin tip xc, trao i xin php trch dn cc ngun khc nhau, mong qu v vui lng min chp. Bi ging ny ch s dng trong ni b, khng mang tnh kinh doanh v li. Mc du c nhiu c gng nhng bi ging khng th trnh khi cc khuyt im, sai st, tc gi mong c nhn cc ph bnh ng gp ca cc bn hon chnh dn cho cc bin son k tip. Trn trng. L Anh Tun

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------M U - MC LC

ii

Gio trnh CNG TRNH X L NC THI L Anh Tun ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

MC LC========== trang ... TRANG BA.................................................................................................... LI M U ................................................................................................. ii MC LC....................................................................................................... iii Chng 1 KHI QUT V CNG TRNH X L NC THI................ 1 1.1 NH NGHA V CC KHI NIM......................................................... 1 1.1.1 nh ngha Nc thi ........................................................................... 1 1.1.2 Gii thiu mn hc ............................................................................... 1 1.1.3 Khi nim v Cng trnh X l Nc thi ............................................ 2 1.1.4 Cc phng php c bn X l Nc thi .................................... 3 1.1.5 Cc yu cu chnh ca mt Cng trnh XLNT...................................... 7 1.2 CC BC HNH THNH MT D N X L NC THI .............. 7 1.2.1 Tin trnh tng qut............................................................................... 7 1.2.2 iu tra, kho st.................................................................................. 8 1.2.3 nh khi lng nc thi.................................................................... 8 1.2.4 xut Phng n ............................................................................. 9 1.2.5 Phn tch cc Phng n..................................................................... 9 1.3 H S CNG TRNH XLNT................................................................... 9 1.3.1 Yu cu................................................................................................. 9 1.3.2 Tm tt cng trnh................................................................................. 10 1.3.3 Tp thuyt minh Cng trnh .................................................................. 10 1.3.3 Cc s liu - Ph lc............................................................................. 11 Chng 2 XC NH KHI LNG V THNH PHN NC THI LIN QUAN N CC CH S THIT K CNG TRNH ................. 12 2.1 NC THI SINH HOT........................................................................ 12 2.1.1 Khi lng ............................................................................................ 12 2.1.2 Thnh phn v tnh cht ....................................................................... 13 2.2 NC THI SN XUT ......................................................................... 17 2.2.1 Khi lng ............................................................................................ 17 2.2.2 Thnh phn v tnh cht ....................................................................... 18 2.3 CC V D C BN XC NH CH S THIT K THY LC........... 19 2.3.1 Phng trnh Manning v phng trnh Hazen-Williams .................... 19 2.3.2 Xc nh ng knh ti u cho my bm........................................... 20 2.3.3 p trn thnh mng ............................................................................ 21 2.3.4 o lu lng nc thi ........................................................................ 21 2.3.5 Cn bng dng chy............................................................................. 22

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------M U - MC LC iii

Gio trnh CNG TRNH X L NC THI L Anh Tun -----------------------------------------------------------------------------Chng 3 CNG TRNH X L NC THI BNG C HC ................ 25 3.1 CNG TRNH LM SCH C HC....................................................... 25 3.1.1 Song chn rc ...................................................................................... 25 3.1.2 Mt s kiu song chn rc ................................................................... 27 3.2 B LNG CT ......................................................................................... 31 3.3 B LNG S CP .................................................................................. 37 3.4 B THU DU, B THU M .................................................................... 42 3.5 B LC.................................................................................................... 43 Chng 4 CNG TRNH LM SCH NC THI DI T ................ 48 4.1 CNG TRNH NH V SINH .................................................................. 48 4.1.1 Khi qut............................................................................................... 48 4.1.2 B tr Nh v sinh ................................................................................. 49 4.1.3 Phn loi Nh v sinh........................................................................... 51 4.1.4 B t hoi ............................................................................................. 53 4.3 H THNG G LC .............................................................................. 61 4.2 CNG TRNH GING THM .................................................................. 62 4.2.1 Nguyn l v S ging thm ........................................................... 62 4.2.2 Kt cu ging thm............................................................................... 64 4.3 CNH NG LC, TI ....................................................................... 65 4.3.1 Nguyn l ............................................................................................. 65 4.3.2 Thit k ................................................................................................ 65 4.3.3 Tnh ton mc ti thy lc v xc nh din tch.................................. 70 Chng 5 T HP CNG TRNH X L NC THI ........................... 81 5.1 NGUYN L ........................................................................................... 81 5.2 CC CH TIU THIT K ....................................................................... 83 5.2.1 S liu thit k ..................................................................................... 83 5.2.2 S h thng cng trnh ................................................................... 83 5.2.3 Chn phng n x l ......................................................................... 85 5.3 V D THIT K MNG LI NC THI TH V K NGH ..... 86 5.4 QUN L CNG TRNH X L NC THI ...................................... 90 5.4.1 Nguyn tc chung ................................................................................ 90 5.4.2 Cng tc o lng ............................................................................... 90 5.4.3 Cng tc qun l .................................................................................. 91 BNG QUI I N V................................................................................ 92 PH LC ...................................................................................................... 93 TI LIU THAM KHO................................................................................. 99 ===========================================================

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------M U - MC LC iv

Gio trnh CNG TRNH X L NC THI L Anh Tun -------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chng

--- oOo ---

KHI QUT V CNG TRNH X L NC THI1.1 NH NGHA V CC KHI NIM 1.1.1 nh ngha Nc thi Tt c cc hot ng sinh hot v sn xut trong mi cng ng u to ra cc cht thi, cc th kh, lng v rn. Thnh phn cht thi lng, hay nc thi (wastewater) c nh ngha nh mt dng ha tan hay trn ln gia nc (nc dng, nc ma, nc mt, nc ngm, ...) v cht thi t sinh hot trong cng ng c dn, cc khu vc sn xut cng nghip, tiu th cng nghip, thng mi, giao thng vn ti, nng nghip, ... y cn hi