Click here to load reader

Design of GIS Based Forest Road Layout and Environmental ... · PDF fileDesign of GIS Based Forest Road Layout and Environmental Assessment Tool ... I developed and ArcView 3.3

  • View
    212

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Text of Design of GIS Based Forest Road Layout and Environmental ... · PDF fileDesign of GIS Based...

  • Design of GIS Based Forest Road Layout and Environmental

    Assessment Tool

    by

    Xiangfei Meng

    Bachelor of Economics, Jilin University, 2001

    A report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

    Master of Forest Engineering (MFE)

    in the Faculty of Forestry and Environmental Management

    This report is accepted.

    ..

    Dean of Graduate Studies and Research

    THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW BRUNSWICK

    October, 2006

    Xiangfei Meng, 2006

  • ii

    ABSTRACT

    Poor soil drainage can cause major damage to roads, especially unpaved forest

    roads. In turn, forest roads can change water flow patterns, which may lead to local soil

    flooding, ditch erosion, siltation in down-slope water bodies, and the degradation of

    aquatic habitat in lake and stream bottoms. In this study, I developed and ArcView 3.3

    GIS forest road layout tool called FOROAD, and this tool adjusts automatically to

    specifications about local climate normals, terrain, and depth-to-water below the soil

    surface. The tool consists of three modules. ForVisual is a visualization tool and

    produces maps of wet areas, culvert distribution and slope. This tool provides users with

    a general interface of FOROAD for data loading and parameter modification.

    ForCulverts is used to determine the location and the size of cross road drainage

    culverts. This tool can be used to determine the culvert location of new roads or to assess

    the suitability of culvert size and location of existing roads. ForRoutes assists to identify

    road layouts across environmentally sensitive areas such as steep slope areas and wet

    areas. This is done with and automated optimization routine to seek alternative routes

    according to total road length, construction cost, number of bridges and culverts needed,

    length of wet and environmentally sensitive areas to be crossed, slopes and slants, and

    overall earth-moving efforts.

  • iii

    TABLE OF CONTENT

    ABSTRACT ..................................................................................................................................................II

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ........................................................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.

    TABLE OF CONTENT ............................................................................................................................. III

    LIST OF TABLES ....................................................................................................................................... V

    LIST OF FIGURES ...................................................................................................................................... 6

    CHAPTER 1

    INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................................... 8

    REPORT OBJECTIVES........................................................................................................................... 10 LITERATURE CITED ............................................................................................................................. 12

    CHAPTER 2

    GETTING STARTED ................................................................................................................................ 14

    CHAPTER 3

    DETERMINING CULVERT LOCATION AND SIZE ........................................................................... 21

    STUDY AREA ......................................................................................................................................... 23 Peak Flow ............................................................................................................................................ 23 Drainage Area ..................................................................................................................................... 24 Runoff coefficient C ......................................................................................................................... 24 Extreme Rainfall Events (I) Distribution Map................................................................................. 25 Sizing Culverts ..................................................................................................................................... 29 Locating Culverts ................................................................................................................................. 29 Test Data .............................................................................................................................................. 30

    DISCUSSION........................................................................................................................................... 34 LITERATURE CITED ............................................................................................................................. 35

    CHAPTER 4

    FORROUTES: LAYING OUT FOREST ROAD ...................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.

    STUDY AREA ................................................................................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. METHODS ......................................................................................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.

    The Drawing Tool ................................................................................................................................ 40 The Assessment Tool ............................................................................................................................ 41 The Optimum Route Tool ....................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Curve Smoothing ................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Calculations ........................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

    SUMMARY ............................................................................................................................................. 63 LITERATURE CITED ....................................................................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.

    CHAPTER 5

    FOROAD AND OTHER EXISTING ROAD DESIGN TOOLS ............................................................. 66

    INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................... 66 LITERATURE CITED ............................................................................................................................. 82

  • iv

    CHAPTER 6

    SUMMARY AND DISCUSSIONS ............................................................................................................ 84

    SUMMARY OF THE SOFTWARE ......................................................................................................... 84 CONTINUATION OF THE SOFTWARE ............................................................................................... 86 LITERATURE CITED ............................................................................................................................. 87

    APPENDIX A- USER TUTORIAL ........................................................................................................... 88

    User Manual ........................................................................................................................................ 88

    APPENDIX B- RAINFALL DATA FOR ATLANTIC CANADA .......................................................... 93

    APPENDIX C- METHODOLOGY OF MAPPING WET AREAS ........................................................ 98

    LITERATURE CITED ........................................................................................................................... 103

    APPENDIX D- FOROAD ARCVIEW AVNUETM

    CODE .................................................................... 106

  • v

    LIST OF TABLES

    Table 3.1 Determining runoff coefficients based on slope percent 28

    Table 3.2 Kirpich adjustment factor (k) 31

    Table 4.1 A comparison of model suggested roadway alternatives

    60

    Table 5.1 Existing Software Packages for Road Design 69

    Table 5.2 A summarization of existing transportation design tool 70

  • 6

    LIST OF FIGURES

    Figure 1.1 Road damage arising from roadway surface drainage problems 10

    Figure 1.2 Roadway and environmental damage arising from subsurface flow

    drainage problems 11

    Figure 1.4 Report out line and relationships between chapters 14

    Figure 2.1 The GUI of FOROAD. Users provide data and modify parameters

    in this window. 20

    Figure 2.2 Loading DEM of New Brunswick, Canada 21

    Figure 2.3 Loading water features, which include lakes, streams and rives in

    New Brunswick, Canada 21

    Figure 2.4 Loading the Depth-to-Surface water map of New Brunswick Figure

    22

    Figure 2.5 Loading Atlantic Canada weather map 22

    Figure 2.6 Loading existing road network for New Brunswick area. Dropdown

    menus in the top red oval control show three module controls of ForVisual,

    ForCulverts and ForRoutes 23

    Figure 3.1 Processing flowchart for sizing culvert 25

    Figure 3.2 Digital map of Rainfall Distribution for Atlantic Canada (30

    minutes event with a return period of 25 years) 30

    Figure 3.3 Isometric precipitation map, adapted from Rainfall Frequency

    Atlas for Ca