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Discovering Shakespeare’s Meaning Chapter.5 Parallel Actions

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Discovering Shakespeare’s Meaning Chapter.5 Parallel Actions. 김선이 , 최혜민 , 채수은 , 김홍철 , 전지이 , 김대운. Parallel Action. SP ’ s plays: usually trace 2-3 sequence of events -> Characters- contact with one another Ex) Much Ado About Nothig Hero& Claudio - Beatrice & Benedick - echoed - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Discovering Shakespeare’s Meaning Chapter.5 Parallel Actions

Discovering Shakespeares Meaning Chapter.5 Parallel Actions

Discovering Shakespeares Meaning

Chapter.5 Parallel Actions, , , , , Parallel ActionSPs plays: usually trace 2-3 sequence of events-> Characters- contact with one another Ex) Much Ado About NothigHero& Claudio- Beatrice & Benedick - echoed As You Like It isRosalind& orlando- Phebe& Silvius, Touchstone & Audrey Celia & Oliver - echoedThe function of multiple plotting varies from play to playThe secondare actions/ the subsidery actions:Duplicate the events of the main plotUniversalizing the issue involvedOr, contrast: view from a different perspectiveContribution to meaning of the whole

Not only ramification of eventsBut though the relationship between those events, forms principal focus of audience attention.King LearMost notable parallel plotMain plot + repeated on a slightly lower social levelMain plotKing Lear-> is deceived by two treacherous daughters -> vanished loyal daughter, CordeliaSub plotEarl of Gloucester -> deluded disloyal son, Edmund -> banished loving son, EdgorBoth cases-Unnatural offspring: Turn on their fathers-Undergo a period of physical & mental suffering before being succoured by their loyal children-Reaching some understanding prior to their deathReinforced b y a more complex web of correspondencesLearMost deceived while saneFuller understanding through madness

Gloucester-Sees least when he has sight-Comes to perceive when blind

Function of duplicatoin is complexSimplest level: universalize the events of the main plotLears experience = One mans experience-When paralleled by another man in same society* The experience is generalized* Becomes applicable to all fathersLear as King is perverse> Unnatural dislocation of family relationship in the sub- plot world> Unnatural state brought into being by the abnormal conduct of kingParallel-Gloucester plot: elevating the central figure-Lears act: made more fully comprehensibleParallel-Principal methods of plot construction in Renaissance drama as a whole-Correspondences, impossible to overlook

Elizabethan-Jacobean theatrical conventions-less obtrusive, unfamiliar-other aspects of the dramatic technique appear to approximate to those of our own age-use of soliloquy-emphasis on the personal experience of the central figure-psychological based interpretation focused view of the hero himself

Psychological case history is to distort it

Elizabethan-Jacobean drama-revenge play evolved through: multiplicity of plotsVengeance of one individual precipitating plotCounter-plot throughout the social group

Ex) Spanish TragedyVengeance revenge for Don Andrea lead to violent action-> Lorenzo, Bel-imperia, HieronimoAntonios Revenge: Similar to Hamlet5 revengers-> Villain, Piero SPs play + revenge genre4 revengers-all concerned with the death of a father-subject to some delay in the execution of their purpose*Hamlet, Fortin bras, Pyrrhus, Laertes

Judgments made by the audience are not identical Pyrrhus- overlookedThe play within a play diminishes Pyrrhuss reality within the drama structureAct 2, scene 2: -line 328-358, 364, 376-398, 427-428The lengthy introduction to the players in relation to the performance of The Murder of Gonzago in the following act, Hamlet hopes to make clausius reveal his guilt.Speeches:-considerable significance in relation to the theme of the play-no way advance the central actionComplete revenge play in miniatureCorrespond to Hamlet it self

Hamlet -Recite the opening passage: Pyrrhus is described-Heightening the audiences awarencess of the parallet between the persons of the play world and those of the play within the play-Inviting comparison between the two Objective evidenceThe vengeance of Prrhus: complicatesAct 2, scene 2: 446-459Hamlet begins with a false start:Effect- naturalisticBut- misquotation initiates image strands followingsHyrcanian beast= Tiger, predatory animalBlack & red, Rugged= Tiger recalled, emphasis on bloodSable= Prrhus called himself, black, night, dreadHeraldry more dismal= blacknessTotal gules= redHorridly tricked with blood, pasted with goreTwo colors= black & red represent the darkness and flames of hell

Expressions of Parallel Actions in Hamlet Barbarous and diabolic nature of revenger + The human worth of his victims Ex. -Shakespeare used fathers, mothers, daughters, sons(454) ->stressing natural bonds and the loss involved through death for whole family group. - The king (target of the revenge) : Power and authority (X) Age and Kinship (O)

The king and his swordThe king - The object of vengeance+ the impotence and dignity of ageing majestyHis sword - antique(465),Rebellious to his arm(466), Unequal matchd(467),Unnerved(470) + His ancient and inherited office father(470), His head is milky(474), reverend(475)HecubaStreesed Violation of natural bonds + Human vulnerabilityHerself (As a wife and mother) - No sign to show her high class : Barefoot(501), cloth on her head instead of a diadem(502-3), clasped blanket on her(504-5)-> To the audience - Feel pity(Her appearance) + dissatisfaction(The witness of murder)

Correspondence between Dramatis person of Hamlet itself + The play-within-the-play invites the audience to - consider relationship between two - apply deduction about one to the another Relationship between play and playletTo receive a further dimension & additional point of correspondence between play and playlet Ex : Precipitate as Pyrrhus vengeance = like Hamlets ->not accomplished without delayEmblematic representation of Hamlets posture - The capacity to exact vengeance -> The will of the revenger paralysed.Pyrrhus conduct (The significance of the parallel lies) - Tyrant(476) + Reverend(475) old man - His hesitation : An act of clemency or divine intervention(x) : The prelude to an act of violence with machine-like pitilessness

The audience might think that the task before Hamlet is no easy one.-> However, Hamlet himself does not view the players speeches from the same perspective as the audience. -The audience: appalled by the horrific act -Hamlet: impressed by the First player reflects on the discrepancy between his own responses to actual experience & the players response

Outside the play world understand ->Why Hamlet complain himself for his indifference & Fallacy of his positionThe Players emotion->Self-generated. Not a response to experience.ExamplesHamlet -himself pointed out in a soliloquy His mother -Like Niobe, all tears(I.ii.149) before getting marry->External shows of emtion : is not a true grief Soliloquy Widens the gulf between the spectaors perceptions & those of the speaker. Ex. Hamlets inability to respond to his fathers murderWithout the playlet(preceding the soliloquy) - The audience: accept this conclusion - parallel revenger The term used to explain the relationship between Young Hamlet, Young Fortinbras and Elder Hamlet, Elder Fortinbras. image that is projected of the parallel revenger is a negative one.

Both Elder Fortinbras and Elder Hamlet die at another man's hand, the Norwegian (Elder Fortinbras) was killed honorably the Dane(Elder Hamlet) dishonorably by an act of treachery. Superficial level-contrast between the violent ends of the two kings suggests that vengeance for the death of a father is not necessarily morally justifiable. Fortinbras and his uncle are shown in a relationship which is pretty similar to hamlet and Claudius's relationship.

fortinbras - his uncle hamlet - claudius The captain of the army from Norwey have a conversation with hamlet, and they talk about the value of the land that fortinbras is trying to get back. The captain sees the land fortinbras is about to fight for as having 'no profit but the name'. (as being worthless as farm land and valueless on the open market.) This is th' impostume of much wealth and peace, that inward breaks, and shows no cause withoutwhy the man dies,

(27-9)contrast between his conduct and that of the Norwegian prince the judgement of speaker and listener begin to diverge. hamlet offers two possible explanations for his delay in exacting vengeance

1. bestial oblivion 2. thinking too precisely on th'event' Neither explanation can be fully endorsed by the audience. As hamlet himself has just pointed out , it is the extent to which man applies his reason that is the measure of his 'godlike' nature. contrast between his objective and subjective responses to what he has witnessed

Negative When speaking to the captain, he uses the word negatively:

Two thousand souls and twenty thousand ducats Will not debate the question of this straw! This is th' impostume of much wealth and peace- (25-7)

Positive When he contrasts fortinbras' conduct with his own the context is positive:

Rightly to be great Is not to stir without great argument, Butgreatly to find quarrel in a straw When honour's at the stake. (53-6)Different response of Hamlet and Laertes Hamlet: Though he censures himself for inaction, has tested the truth of the ghost's accusation and is therefore assured that the man he is seeking to bring down is, in fact, his father's murderer.

Laertes: rushing, by contrast, to the headlong vengeance that Hamlet longs to take, mistakes the source of the wrong that has been done to him and is poised to commit not merely an unjust act in killing an innocent man, but a rebellious one in unlawfully over