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สสสสสสสสสสสสสสสสสสสสสสสสสสส พพ. พพพพพพพ พ พพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ 100% พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ 2,000% พพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ พพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพพ 1

Exercise physiology

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Text of Exercise physiology

  • 1. . 100% 2,000% 6075 testosterone 1 3 ( 1) 1

2. 1. 2. 3. (homeostasis) 2 3. ATP & energy storage O2 ATP energy mobilization ventilation blood flow, redistribution Blood gas Acid-base balance Water temperature 1. 3 1. 2 3 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. , 2 1. 2 1.1 (voluntary) (cerebrum) motor unit 1.2 (involuntary) (reflex) cerebral cortex 2. (receptor) (somatic nervous system) (autonomic nervous system)3 4. 3 1.1 Type I (slow twitch fiber) aerobic (endurance): mitochondria oxidative enzyme 1.2 Type II b (fast twitch fiber) anaerobic (power): 1.3 Type II a (intermediate) 1. (excitability) (neurotransmitters): acetylcholine (Ach) (electrical stimuli): (hormonal stimuli): oxytocin 2. (contractility) 3. (extensibility) 4. (elasticity) 2 ( 2) 1. static contraction isometric contraction 2. dynamic contraction 2 isotonic isokinetic contraction isotonic contraction: range of motion exercise isokinetic contraction: dynamic contraction isokin eticisoto nic concen ( tric )eccen (tric ))4 5. 2. dynamic 2 isotonic contraction isokinetic contraction isotonic contraction concentic contraction eccentric contraction 5 6. (strength), (power), (endurance), (performance) (strength) (power) (strength) + (speed) (endurance) 2 (1) muscle endurance (2) general endurance (physical performance) (strength), (power), (speed), (endurance), (agility), (flexibility), (coordination) O2 Physical performance 1. (motion) (skeletal muscle) (cardiac muscle) (smooth muscle) 2. (posture) 3. (heat production) 6 7. 1. (nerve impulse action potential) (axon terminal) (influx) 2. ACh 3. ACh (synaptic cleft) 4. ACh ACh receptor (sarcolemma) 5. ACh receptor (sodium channels) 6. (negative charge) (positive charge) depolarization 7. depolarization depolarization (propagation) depolarization repolarization 8. depolarization sarcolemma T tubules 9. T tubules sarcoplasmic reticulum ( endoplasmic reticulum ) sarcoplasm (cytoplasm ) 10. troponin microfilament, tropomyosin myosinbinding sites actin ( myosin actin) 11. ATPase ATP ADP + Pi myosin head cross-bridge myosin-binding sites actin () 12. (power stroke) ADP and P myosin head 13. ATP myosin head myosin actin ( rigor mortis 7 8. ATP cross-bridges ) 14. ATP ADP + Pi myosin head actin 15. cross-bridges 2 (isotonic contraction) (isometric contraction) 16. acetylcholinesterase (AChE) ACh sarcoplasmic reticulum myosin crossbridges ATP (resting state) 8 9. 3 ( 3) 1.Phosphagen system 10-15 2.Glycogen lactic acid system Anaerobic 30-40 system 3.Aerobic system ATP 5 6 ATP ATP creatine phosphate ( phosphagen system) creatine phosphate ATP (10-15 ) ATP ATP 2 1. (anaerobic respiration) glycogen lactic acid system glucose phosphagen system 30-40 1 pyruvic acid 2 pyruvic acid 2. (aerobic respiration) ATP pyruvic acid ATP citric acid cycle 9 10. % Oxida tion TGCreati ne phosp hateGlyco genAT P Glucose, Fat Gluconeog enesis cid anaer cid aero 3 obic bic 3. ATP AT C P alacta PGlyco gen lacta ATP , creatine phosphate, , free fatty acid ATP 2-3 free fatty acid oxidation ATP (O2 consumption) 1 200-300 ./ ( 3.5 ././) 1 MET (metabolic equivalent) 3 8-12 (2-3 / ) 16-20 (4-5 /) ( 4) 2-3 (steady state) (O2 supply = O2demand) 10 11. O2 (/) 3. O2steady state defici 0 (VO2max) t 2. 6 2. 2 O2 1. dept O2 8 consumption 1. at rest 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4. 1. 0 9 10 12 11 1-2 13 steady state 0 8 () 0. 6 O2 deficit 0. 2 O2 deptMaximum aerobic capacity maximum O2 consumption (VO 2max) aerobic maximum aerobic power maximum exercise capacity (VO2 max) = 1 = (max CO) x (max a-v O2 difference) O2 deficit 2-3 O2 deficit 2 500 ., 25 . , 1 (hemoglobin) 300 . myoglobin 11 12. Oxygen debt ATP ATP 80 ATP, creatine phosphate (hemoglobin), (myoglobin), (body fluids) oxygen debt (maximum oxygen uptake) 2 glycogen lactic acid system . 1. ATP (free fatty acid) (glycogen glucose) 12 13. 2. type I aerobic capacity 2-3 ATP aerobic mitochondria mitochondria aerobic aerobic ATP ATP ATP anaerobic 1. (ventilation) 5-6 / 100 150 / 1 () 6 6 (/) 1 6 0 5 0 4 13 0 Anaerobic 3 threshold 0 2 14. 1 0 0 ( 5) anaerobic threshold 1 5. anaerobic threshold 2. (lung perfusion) (cardiac output ) 3. (diffusion) 4. (gas transport) ( shift oxygen dissociation curve ) (H+) 2 1 (cardiac output) (redistribution of blood flow) 1 (cardiac output; CO) 14 15. (CO) 4-6 / CO 20 / 30 / CO 1 = 1 x Cardiac output (CO) = stroke volume (SV) x heart CO maximum CO (SV) (diastolic filling time ) ( 6)15 16. heart rate cardiac output stroke volume00.5 6. 1 1 (heart rate), () (cardiac output) 1 (stroke volume) cardiac output stroke volume CO (O2 dept) ( 7) CO / 2 0 1 0 5 7. cardiac output (CO) CO (stroke volume; SV) SV sympathetic epinephrine thyroxine SV SV maximum SV SV SV 16 17. ( venous return) (muscle pumping) (respiratory pumping) SV 180-190 ./ 5-10 SV 10-20 CO CO HR SV (heart rate; HR) HR HR 75 / HR 53 / HR (maximum HR) (Maximum HR)=220 () HR HR CO HR HR HR HR (blood pressure; BP) BP CO (total peripheral resistance; TPR) BP systolic 180 . diastolic BP ( 8) (1) aerobic CO systolic TPR diastolic (2) anaerobic (valsalvas maneuver) 80 . 200 . systolic TPR diastolic 17 18. 18 19. 20 0 (. ) 15 0 10 020 0SB P15 0HR DB P 10 anaerobic210 0SB P H RDB P 10 2 aero 8. systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) 10 bic 50% (HR) anaerobic aerobic 50% 0% anaerobic () systolic diastolic aerobic systolic diastolic (total peripheral resistance, TPR) (redistribution of blood flow) sympathetic metabolites paracrine nitric oxide, histamine, prostacyclin 8-10 anaerobic 20 aerobic hypothalamus hypothalamus 19 20. (autoregulation) 20 21. (muscle hypertrophy) sympathetic epinephrine, norepinephrine, ACTH, cortisol, growth hormone insulin sympathetic insulin glucagon glucagon epinephrine cortisol insulin (acute exercise) insulin receptor insulin 1 (hypertrophy) anabolic effect growth hormone T4 anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) aldosterone 3940oC 21 22. 1. 2. 3. 22 23. (warm up) 1. 2. 3. 4. (diffusion) 5. (training effects) (training effects) (reserve capacity) ( ) 1-2 (anaerobic training) (type II) (anaerobic metabolism) (endurance aerobic training) ( 60-90 ) 20 3-5 (VO2 max), 1 (CO) 1 (SV ) oxydation myoglobin mitochondria anaerobic 23 24. threshold 2 (reconditioning program) 24 25. 1.2. 3. 4.5.6. 7. (resting heart rate) parasympathetic system ( = max HR resting HR) (stroke volume) (venous return) (maximum O2 consumption) (stroke volume) ( a-vO2 difference) anaerobic threshold anaerobic metabolism aerobic (O2 dept) (buffer capacity) 25