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  • Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830

    Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Industrial Water Use

    BK Boyd

    August 2010

    PNNL-19730

  • PNNL19730

    GuidelinesforEstimatingUnmeteredIndustrialWaterUseBKBoydAugust2010PreparedforU.S.DepartmentofEnergyFederalEnergyManagementProgramunderContractDEAC0576RL01830PacificNorthwestNationalLaboratoryRichland,Washington99352

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    Summary

    ExecutiveOrder13514requiresFederalagenciestodevelopabaselineforindustrial,landscaping,andagriculturalwateruseinfiscalyear2010.Measuringactualwaterusethroughflowmetersisthebestmethodtodevelopthisbaseline.ButthereareinstanceswhereFederalsitesdonotmetertheseapplications,sodevelopingabaselinewillbeproblematic.ThereforetheintentofthisdocumentistoassistFederalagenciesinthebaselinedevelopmentbyprovidingamethodologytocalculateunmeteredsourcesofindustrialwateruseutilizingengineeringestimates.

    Thedocumentlaysoutasystematicapproachtoestimateindustrialwateruseinevaporativecoolingsystems,steamboilersystems,andfacilitywashapplications.

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    Acknowledgments

    ThisdocumentwaspreparedbythePacificNorthwestNationalLaboratory(PNNL)onbehalfoftheFederalEnergyManagementProgram.PNNLwouldliketothanktheFederalWaterWorkingGroupoftheInteragencyEnergyManagementTaskForce,whichprovidedinitialdirectionandlaterreviewofthesupplementalguidance.

    Representativesoftheworkinggroupincludethefollowingindividuals:

    DanAmonEnvironmentalProtectionAgencyAndyCriglerDepartmentofDefenseOfficeoftheSecretaryofDefenseWilliamEngDepartmentofDefenseArmyBuckyGreenEnvironmentalProtectionAgencyMichaelGreenNationalAeronauticalSpaceAdministrationMaryHeyingDepartmentofInteriorSamHiguchiNationalAeronauticalSpaceAdministrationCharlesJohnsonDepartmentofAgricultureDexterJohnsonEnvironmentalProtectionAgencyReginaLarrabeeVeteransAffairsWilliamLintnerDepartmentofEnergy,ChairmanJoseManiwangDepartmentofJusticeDanielMagroDepartmentofDefenseNavyDonMauritzLawrenceBerkeleyNationalLaboratorySandyMorganDepartmentofAgricultureTaraOHareEnvironmentalProtectionAgencyJohnParkVeteransAffairsLarryPierceDepartmentofHousingandUrbanDevelopmentRobertScintaDepartmentofCommerceJustinSpenilloEnvironmentalProtectionAgencyStephanieTannerEnvironmentalProtectionAgencyWayneThalasinosNationalAeronauticalSpaceAdministrationChrisTindalDepartmentofDefenseNavyChauTranDepartmentofJusticeCynthiaVallinaOfficeofManagementandBudgetDavidZimmermanTennesseeValleyAuthorityThefollowingpeoplealsoprovidedtechnicalandproductionassistance:

    SueAreyPacificNorthwestNationalLaboratoryJimCabePacificNorthwestNationalLaboratoryElisabethGieverPacificNorthwestNationalLaboratoryBillSanduskyPacificNorthwestNationalLaboratoryKateMcMordieStoughtonPacificNorthwestNationalLaboratory

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    Contents Summary......................................................................................................................................................iii

    Acknowledgments........................................................................................................................................iv

    1.0 Background.......................................................................................................................................1

    2.0 GettingStarted..................................................................................................................................3

    3.0 EstimatingEvaporativeCoolingSystemWaterUse..........................................................................5

    3.1 OpenrecirculatingSystems..........................................................................................................5

    4.0 EstimatingSteamHeatingSystemWaterUse..................................................................................9

    4.1 Option1:EstimatingSteamSystemWaterUseKnowingSoftenerPerformance......................11

    4.2 Option2:DeterminingHeatingSystemWaterUseKnowingYourSteamGenerationRate......12

    5.0 WashingApplicationsWaterUse....................................................................................................15

    5.1 WashApplicationsandBatchProcessing/ManufacturingUsages.............................................15

    5.2 VehicleWashStations.................................................................................................................16

    6.0 SubsequentReportingYears...........................................................................................................19

    7.0 Glossary...........................................................................................................................................21

    8.0 References......................................................................................................................................23

    Appendix...................................................................................................................................................A1

    A1 TotalDissolvedSolidsandConductivity...................................................................................A1

    A2 CyclesofConcentration............................................................................................................A1

    A3 CoolingSystemConsiderations.................................................................................................A3

    A4 MassBalanceofSteamSystems...............................................................................................A4

    A5 ExplanationofFormula6..........................................................................................................A4

    A6 SteamHeatingSystemExample...............................................................................................A5

    A7 VehicleWashConsiderations....................................................................................................A7

    A8 AppendixReferences................................................................................................................A8

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    Figures Figure1:TypicalOpenrecirculatingCoolingSystem...................................................................................6Figure2:ExampleSteamGeneratingBoilerSystem...................................................................................10

    FigureA1:CyclesofConcentrationandMassFlowExampleofaSteamSystem........................................2FigureA2:SampleBoilerScenario...............................................................................................................6

    Tables Table1:MillionGallonsperYearofCoolingSystemUsageforDifferentSized...........................................7Table2:EstimatingAnnualUsageWithoutReclaimSystems,....................................................................17Table3:EstimatingAnnualUsageWithReclaimSystems,.........................................................................17Table4:AverageFreshWaterUsagebyCarWashType..............................................................................7Table5:PercentReclaimLevels....................................................................................................................8

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    1.0 Background

    ExecutiveOrder13514,FederalLeadershipinEnvironmental,Energy,andEconomicPerformance,wassignedonOctober5,2009byPresidentObama.EO13514haswaterprovisionsthatrequireFederalagenciestoimprovewateruseefficiencyandmanagementasfollows:

    1. Reducepotablewateruse2%annuallythroughfiscalyear(FY)2020,or26%bytheendoffiscalyear2020,relativetoafiscalyear2007baseline.

    2. Reduceagencyindustrial,landscaping,andagriculturalnonpotablewateruse2%annually,or20%bytheendoffiscalyear2020,relativetoafiscalyear2010baseline.

    EachFederalsitemustdevelopabaselinefortheseindustrial,landscaping,andagriculturalusesandreportthetotalFY2010consumptiontotheirrespectiveagency.ButthereareinstanceswhereFederalsitesdonotmetertheseapplications,sodevelopingabaselinewillbeproblematic.Thebestsolutiontothisproblemistoinstallflowmeters.Meteringoffersthemostaccurateaccountingofwateruse.Ifpermanentmeteringisnotpractical,atemporaryflowmeteroffersthesecondbestsolution.Therearetemporaryultrasonicflowmetersthatcanbeinstalledtotheoutsideofthepipethatdonotrequireadisruptionoftheprocess.

    Ifthesemeteringoptionsarenotapplicableorpractical,thenanengineeringestimatemustbeusedtoestimateannualwateruse.TheintentofthisdocumentistoassistFederalagenciesinestimatingunmetereduseofindustrialwaterutilizingengineeringestimates1.

    Industrialwateruseincludeswaterusedforsuchpurposesasfabricating,processing,washing,diluting,cooling,ortransportingaproduct;incorporatingwaterintoaproduct;orforsanitationneedswithinthefacility(USGS2000).Theapplicationsselectedforthisdocumentareopenrecirculatingcoolingsystems,steamgeneratingheatingsystems,andinstallationwashfacilities.TheseprocesseswereselectedbecausetheyrepresenttypicalindustrialapplicationsatFederalsites.

    TohelpFederalagenciesestimateunmetereduses,thefollowinginformationprovidesamethodologytoestimaterequirementsforcoolingsystems,steamheatingsystems,andwashfacilities.Theapproachincorporatesstandardcalculations,industrynorms,generalrulesofthumb,andindustrysurveyinformationtoprovidemethodologiesforeachsection.

    1Note,theFederalEnergyManagementProgramhasproducedacompaniondocumentthatprovidesamethodologyonhowtoestimateunmeteredlandscapeirrigationapplications.

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    2.0 Getting Started

    Usingthisdocument,youneedtoknowthefollowingfactorstoestimatetheannualwateruseforeachprocesscoveredinthisdocument:

    Evaporativecoolingsystemwateruse,youneedtoknow:

    1. Chillertonnage(nameplate)

    2. Coolingtowercyclesofconcentration

    3. Annualdaysorhoursofoperation