Class: VIII A
Iron and Steel Industry in India is on an upswing because of the strong global and domestic demand.
India's rapid economic growth and soaring demand by sectors like infrastructure, real estate and automobiles, at home and abroad, has put Indian steel industry on the global map.
According to the latest report by International Iron and Steel
Institute (IISI), India is the 4th largest steel producer in the world.
Processing of iron and steel
Mining is the first step in the production of iron and steel.
Earth is excavated deep in search of iron ore.
Breaking and cutting of iron ore takes place to receive raw iron.
Raw Materials from the iron ore are put in a particularly hot fire lead in the embers of the fire.
This is done to get the mixture of Iron Ore and Charcoal that is burnt with the help of a blast of air from hand worked
History of Iron and Steel Industry in India
Iron and Steel industry in the country has experienced a sustainable growth since the independence of the country.
A humble beginning of the modern steel industry was reached in India at Kulti in West Bengal in the year 1870.
But the outset of bigger production became noticeable with the establishment of a steel plant. It started plant in Jamshedpur in Bihar in 1907. It started production in 1912.
The new township was named after Jamshed ji Tata.
It was, however, only after Independence that the steel
industry was able to find a strong foothold in the country.
Excluding the Jamshedpur plant of the Tatas, all are in the public sector and looked after by Steel Authority of India Ltd.
The present scenario of the industry
India has one of the richest reserves of all the raw materials required for the industry, namely land, capital, cheap labour, iron ore, power, coal etc.
Yet we are 4th in the world ranking for production of steel.
We produced 66.8 million tonnes in 2010-11, while China, at the top of the list, produced 626.7 million tonnes.
Our per capita consumption of steel in India (at 50 kg per annum) is well below the world average (at about 200 kg per annum) and much below that of the developed world (around 350 kg per annum).
Indias export of Iron and Steel
We develop economic as well as engineering indicators for productivity growth, technical change and energy consumption that allow us to investigate savings potentials in specific energy use as well as carbon dioxide emissions. We discuss our findings within a broader context of structural and policy changes in the sector. The economic analysis shows that productivity has been decreasing over time. The decline in productivity was caused largely by government protection regarding prices and distribution of steel and by inefficiencies in integrated steel plants that were reserved to the public sector. With liberalization of the iron and steel industry productivity increased
substantially to positive growth rates.
We further introduce cost effective and low cost potentials for reducing energy consumption as well as carbon emissions. In comparing Indian energy consumption to best practice energy consumption we show that energy savings of about 50% could be achieved. However, the implementation of initiatives towards energy efficiency is being hampered by barriers both of general and process specific nature occurring at the macro and micro level of the economy.
WHAT IS INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY?
Information technology is the study of engineering computer applications to support the operation of an organization : operating , installing and maintaining software and data.
BASICS OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
CHARACTERISTICS OF A COMPUTER
COMPONENTS OF A COMPUTER SYSTEM
UNITS OF MEMORY
TYPES OF SOFTWARE
Communication technology is the study of technology applications used in telecommunications.
Humans have been storing, retrieving, manipulating and communicating information since theSumeriansinMesopotamiadevelopedwritingin about 3000BC,but the terminformation technologyin its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in theHarvard Business Review; authorsHarold J. Leavittand Thomas L. Whisler commented that "the new technology does not yet have a single established name. We shall call it information technology (IT)."
Their definition consists of three categories: techniques for processing, the application of statistical and mathematical methods to decision-making, and the simulation of higher-order thinking through computer programs.
The evolution of information technology reached a turning point with the development of the Internet. Once a government project, the Internet was created for military purposes. Through the course of its development, researchers began finding other uses for the network, and use of the technology spread worldwide. Access to the Internet today by individuals, businesses, and institutions alike has created a global market for Internet service and has spurned an increase in productivity in the technological communication field.
Opening & Cleaning(Picker)
Stages/Sectors In Textile:
Carding & Combing
Land availability of cheap price
Availability of water
Availability of energy resources
Socio- economic factors
Transport and communication facilities
Market and demand
Management & other factors
Global Textiles Fact Sheet
PRODUCTION OF FIBRESIndia(Million Kg)Raw cotton4122Man-made fibre1023 PRODUCTION OF YARNCotton yarn2272Total spun yarn3223Man-made filament yarn1109
Worlds Major Cotton Producers
WHAT IS COTTON TEXTILE INDUSTRY
Thetextile industryorapparel industryis primarily concerned with the production of yarn, andclothand the subsequent design or manufacture ofclothingand their distribution. The raw material may be natural, or synthetic using products of thechemical industry. The textile industry grew out of theindustrial revolutionin the 18th Century asmass productionof yarn and cloth became a mainstream industry.
In 1734 inBury, Lancashire,John Kayinvented theflying shuttle one of the first of a series ofinventionsassociated with the cotton industry. The flying shuttle increased the width of cotton cloth and speed of production of a single weaver at aloom.Resistance by workers to the perceived threat
to jobs delayed the widespread introduction of this technology, even though the higher rate of production generated an increased demand.
History And Development
Handicraft & Household Industry
Weaving dyeing & printing