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Low Emission Zone Leipzig – Low emission zones can reduce

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  • Low Emission Zone Leipzig

    Low emission zones can reduce ultrafine particles and

    soot mass concentration

    Fabian Rasch

    TROPOS Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research Leipzig

    Department 'Experimental Aerosol and Cloud Microphysic'

    Bratislava, 19-20/02/2014

  • Overview

    Low Emission Zones What is it? Who needs it?

    What does effect it? Low emission zones in Europe

    Low emission zone Leipzig* Technical measurement sites

    Results and discussion

    Further and deepening analyses for LEZ Leipzig

    Summary and outlook

    *in cooperation with the State Office Saxony for agriculture, environment and health (LfULG)

    Fabian Rasch 19-20/02/2014 Bratislava |

    Low Emission Zone Leipzig Low emission zones can reduce ultrafine particle and soot mass concentration

  • Low Emission Zones What is it? Who needs it? What does effect it?

    one instrument of air monitoring

    to reduce the particle concentration (regulary PM10 or PM2.5) in urban

    atmosphere

    to improve air quality for a better human health Immunological studies, morbidity and mortality

    BUT:

    Can a Low emission zone to reduce PM10/PM2.5-Concentration?! Or is this the

    wrong parameter??

    This is a controverse question in research, politic and society

    Fabian Rasch 19-20/02/2014 Bratislava |

    Low Emission Zone Leipzig Low emission zones can reduce ultrafine particle and soot mass concentration

  • Fabian Rasch 19-20/02/2014 Bratislava |

    Low Emission Zone Leipzig Low emission zones can reduce ultrafine particle and soot mass concentration

    Low Emission Zones in Europe

    Screenshot: http://lowemissionzones.eu/ 30/01/2014

    membership countries Rufrei frs Klima

    http://lowemissionzones.eu/http://lowemissionzones.eu/

  • Low Emission Zone Leipzig

    Around 512.000 inhabitants

    Low emission zone with the highest level green (first town in Germany from 0 to 100!) from 01. March 2011

    still more than thousand special persmissions til the end of 2016 (e.g. public transfer and some small enterprises)

    around 63% of town area are the low emission zone LEZ (green marked)

    Fabian Rasch 19-20/02/2014 Bratislava |

    Low Emission Zone Leipzig Low emission zones can reduce ultrafine particle and soot mass concentration

  • five mesurement sites with scientific equipment 2 traffic hotspots (red), 2 urban background (orange), 1 ruralside (blue) uniform distribution in the town area

    worldwide unique: this technical standard for a LEZ

    next to the offical measurements of the LfULG a new scientific look

    not only the PM-Concentrations are measured, but also high-times

    resolved scientific measurements:

    Particle Number Concentration Particle Volume Concentration Soot Mass (Black Carbon) Concentration

    TROPOS tasks for the measurement sites at the LEZ

    Fabian Rasch 19-20/02/2014 Bratislava |

    Low Emission Zone Leipzig Low emission zones can reduce ultrafine particle and soot mass concentration

    measurement site at Leipzig-Mitte

  • Technical equipment on each measurement site:

    Particle size spectrometer: TDMPS (Twin Differential Mobility Particle Sizer): includes two Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) and two Differential Mobility Analyser (DMA) for the ultrafine (Dp < 100nm) and the fine particle (Dp > 100nm)

    Particle Size Distribution (5-800nm), Particle Number Concentration, Particle Volume Concentration, Particle Mass Concentration.

    Absorption photometer: MAAP (Multi Angle Absorption Photometer): Soot mass concentration and the Absorption coefficent

    Fabian Rasch 19-20/02/2014 Bratislava |

    Low Emission Zone Leipzig Low emission zones can reduce ultrafine particle and soot mass concentration

    TDMPS, developed at TROPOS

    MAAP, developed by ThermoScientific

  • Results 2009 - 2012 out from the publication Rasch et al. (2013)

    Fabian Rasch 19-20/02/2014 Bratislava |

    Low Emission Zone Leipzig Low emission zones can reduce ultrafine particle and soot mass concentration

    meteorological conditions are in the average constant

    PM10 stagnates

    Soot mass concentration decreases 30% - traffic increment 2.41 1.75 g/m

    Integrated ultrafine Particle Number Concentration[50-100nm] also decreases, BUT there are more fluctuations

    - traffic increment N[50-100] 1580 1270 - measurement uncertainties and physical interactions

    heavy traffic decreases around 30%

    Low Emission Zone!!!!

  • Results Black Carbon

    Fabian Rasch 19-20/02/2014 Bratislava |

    Low Emission Zone Leipzig Low emission zones can reduce ultrafine particle and soot mass concentration

    Time series from 2009 Green boxes are the time for the analyses

    Day cycles (workday) Left: before LEZ Right: with LEZ

  • 2009 2010 2011 2012

    0.0

    0.5

    1.0

    1.5

    2.0

    2.5

    3.0

    3.5

    mB

    C in

    g/m

    L-Eiba L-Backgroundsummer period 01.05.-31.10.

    2009 2010 2011 2012

    0.0

    0.5

    1.0

    1.5

    2.0

    mB

    C in

    g/m

    traffic effectsummer period 01.05.-31.10.

    Fabian Rasch 19-20/02/2014 Bratislava |

    Low Emission Zone Leipzig Low emission zones can reduce ultrafine particle and soot mass concentration

    Traffic increment of BC on roadside 2009-2012

  • 5 10 100 800

    0

    1000

    2000

    3000

    4000

    5000

    Melpitz 2010

    Melpitz 2011

    Melpitz 2012

    Summermedian

    dN

    /dlo

    gD

    p p

    ro c

    m

    Dp in nm

    5 10 100 800

    0

    2000

    4000

    6000

    8000 L-TROPOS 2010

    L-TROPOS 2011

    L-TROPOS 2012

    Summermedian

    dN

    /dlo

    gD

    p p

    ro c

    m

    Dp in nm

    Particle Size Distrbution Particle Number Concentration

    Urban background Rural background

    Fabian Rasch 19-20/02/2014 Bratislava |

    Low Emission Zone Leipzig Low emission zones can reduce ultrafine particle and soot mass concentration

  • 5 10 100 800

    0

    2000

    4000

    6000

    8000

    10000

    12000 L-Mitte 2010

    L-MItte 2011

    L-Mitte 2012

    Summermediand

    N/d

    log

    Dp

    pro

    cm

    Dp in nm

    Particle Size Distrbution Particle Number Concentration II

    Traffic hotspot

    Fabian Rasch 19-20/02/2014 Bratislava |

    Low Emission Zone Leipzig Low emission zones can reduce ultrafine particle and soot mass concentration

  • 0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    8

    mB

    C in

    g

    / m

    with low emission zone

    before low emission zone

    L-Mitte L-Eiba L-Tropos L-West Melpitzm

    BC in

    g

    / m

    monday tuesday wednesday thursday friday saturday sunday

    Fabian Rasch 19-20/02/2014 Bratislava |

    Low Emission Zone Leipzig Low emission zones can reduce ultrafine particle and soot mass concentration

    Further and deepening analyses for LEZ Leipzig

    Day-week-course for all 5 measurement sites

  • 0

    2

    4

    6

    8

    01.07.2010 01.11.2010 01.03.2011 01.07.2011 01.11.2011 01.03.2012 01.07.2012 01.11.2012 01.03.2013 01.07.2013 01.11.2013

    0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    mB

    C in

    g

    /m

    L-West L-Mitte

    traffic effect at L-Mitte

    mB

    C in

    g

    /m

    Fabian Rasch 19-20/02/2014 Bratislava |

    Low Emission Zone Leipzig Low emission zones can reduce ultrafine particle and soot mass concentration

    0

    2

    4

    6

    8

    10

    12

    14

    01.11.2008 01.04.2009 01.09.2009 01.02.2010 01.07.2010 01.12.2010 01.05.2011 01.10.2011 01.03.2012 01.08.2012 01.01.2013 01.06.2013 01.11.2013

    0

    1

    2

    mB

    C in

    g

    / m

    L-Eiba L-background

    mB

    C in

    g

    / m

    traffic effect L-Eiba

    Following and continuous measurement Traffic increments at L-Mitte an L-Eisenbahnstrae from 01 of November 2008

  • 01.07.2010 01.11.2010 01.03.2011 01.07.2011 01.11.2011 01.03.2012 01.07.2012 01.11.2012 01.03.2013 01.07.2013 01.11.2013

    0

    2

    4

    6

    01.07.2010 01.11.2010 01.03.2011 01.07.2011 01.11.2011 01.03.2012 01.07.2012 01.11.2012 01.03.2013 01.07.2013 01.11.2013

    0

    2

    4

    6

    8

    difference L-Mitte-Melpitz difference L-Mitte-L-West difference L-Mitte-L-Tropos

    mB

    C in

    g

    / m

    L-Tropos L-West L-Eisenbahnstrae L-Mitte Melpitz

    mB

    C in

    g

    / m

    Fabian Rasch 19-20/02/2014 Bratislava |

    Low Emission Zone Leipzig Low emission zones can reduce ultrafine particle and soot mass concentration

    Times series for soot mass concentration for the LEZ Leipzig from 01.July 2010

  • Summary LEZ can reduce ultrafine particles, especially soot mass concentration. The soot mass inkrement and the ultrafine fraction [50-100nm] on the traffic sites decreases around 30%

    Heavy traffic decreases around 30%

    Soot is a toxic particle, this reducing effect is a success for the instrument LEZ

    Soot and the ultrafine particles have a very small ratio in mass for the PM-Concentation

    They are too small, but cause of their small size they can pentrate deeply in human respirato