of 70 /70
د د ج ت م ل و ي ص د أ رأئ ي م عل ث ح ب ن لي ي لن أ" عة ام ا –ج ي عل ل أ" ألدرأسات" ة ي كل ي ن ا ي ل أ وي ن س ل ر أ م" ت و م ل أ10 - 11 ر ب و" ن ك أ2010 م2 rd Annual Conference of the Graduate College (GCNU2) October 10-11, 2010 Contents روح ل و أ" ة رف مع ل أ" ة ي ل ئ " ما ت...................................................................................................................................................... 2 ي ن ر لع أ ي معل ل أ ث ح ت ل أ" ة ي ح ت" ت رأ" ست أ........................................................................................................................................... 2 ي ن ر لع أ ي معل ل أ ث ح ت لر أ ب و ط" ت ي ف ودورها" ة ي ت ودأ س ل أ" عات م ا ج ل أ" كة ي ش................................................................................................... 2 ن لي ي لن أ" امعة ج ب ي معل ل أ ث ح ت ل أ" هات ج و م.................................................................................................................................. 2 Research in Geosciences: Obstacles and Challenges –Sudan ................................................ 2 Gold Mineralization Discovery in Umm Saqata- Qala En Nalal areas, Gadarif State-Estern Sudan .......................................................................................................................................... Sugarcane Field Productivity in Sudan ............................................................................................ 2 The Need for Human Resource Development ....................................................................................... 2 " ة ي عل ا ف ل أ" ة ي س ف ن وأد م ل أ "مدي ت مع ل" مدركة ل أ" ة ي" ت أ ألد" ة ي ل عا ف ل أ ر ب ر ع" ت ل رح" ت" مق ي ج لا ع ج م ا رئ ب ر ب أ............................................................................... 2 وح م ط ل ع وأ" ق وأ ل أ: ي ن و ن ا" ف ل أ ي معل ل أ ث ح ت ل أ................................................................................................................................ 2 ) ودأن س ل ي أ لw أ" x اصة ج" ارة سw أ( ي ن و ن ا" ف ل أ ي معل ل أ ث ح ت ل أ ف ت} ظ ن........................................................................................................ 2 ودأن س ل أ وت ن ج ي ف" ة ي ت ا ن ح ل أ ن ي ن " وأ ف ل أ.................................................................................................................................... 2 ودأن س ل أ وت ن ج اء" ي ف" ت ش أ ون ن ا" ق" لات ما................................................................................................................................. 2 ً ا ج ود م ت ور ف دأر- ي م ف ل أ ن م ي ألا عل رها ب لام وأ عw ألا" مة ل و ع............................................................................................................... 2 ي معل ل وأ ي ن ا ي لن ة أ ار ج عw وأ ن "رأ لق أ........................................................................................................................................... 2

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Contents

10-11 2010

2rd Annual Conference of the Graduate College (GCNU2) October 10-11, 2010

Contents

2

2

2

2

Research in Geosciences: Obstacles and Challenges Sudan2

Gold Mineralization Discovery in Umm Saqata- Qala En Nalal areas, Gadarif State-Estern Sudan

Sugarcane Field Productivity in Sudan2

The Need for Human Resource Development2

2

: 2

( )2

2

2

- 2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

A Comparison between phpdig and sphider Free Search Engines Software2

Descriptive Features based Face Recognition using PCA2

The Influence of Crystal Field on Magnetization Densities for some rare earth ions2

Face Detection, Tracking and Recognition from Surveillance Video Frames2

Clustering Component of Design Effect2

2

2

1991 " "2

2

The Aspects of Environmental Crime in Sudan2

Sources of commercial arbitration in the Yemeni and Sudanese law2

2

2

( )2

2000-20062

2

( )2

Improvement techniques of the haemopoietic stem cell (CD34) Isolation, Culturing and Engraftment by albino rats obtained from umbilical cord blood2

Determination of Flouride in Natural Water in Kassala2

Detection of celiac disease in Sudanese with type 1 autoimmune diabetes mellitus using anti-tissue transglutinamase antibodies2

Developing of adjustable voxel male phantom for radiotherapy planning2

The Effect of Electromagnetic Field on Human Health (Man-made visible light but not static magnetic field exposure causes endocrine toxicity to the pituitary gland and testis of male mice)

The Environmental Impact of Soap and Detergent Industry in Khartoum State, Sudan2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

Difficulties of Modal Auxiliary Verbs Experienced by Sudanese Learners of English at Tertiary Level2

2

2000 20052

2

2

2

1990-20052

( )2

Sample proposal to develop a standard cost analysis of variances in the light of developments in modern manufacturing environment2

2

10-12 2011

-

Awad Haj Ali Ahmad

Faculty of Computer Science

Al Neelain University Khartoum

Sudan

. .

.

.

1 2 3

1 2- - 3-

11121

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Research in Geosciences: Obstacles and Challenges Sudan

Bedr Eldin Khalil Ahmed

Faculty of Petrolum and Minerals, Al Neelain University, Khartoum

Email: [email protected]

In this paper the geosciences concerned are those conducted to reveal results of prospecting, exploration, extraction and utilization of solidus, liquids and gaseous natural mineral materials, as well as to solve problems leading to understand the Earth and its bonds to the Universe. The paper describes the main geological (lithological and geochronological) features of the Sudan. The history of geological research started with the establishment of the Department of Geology in 1905 as an office in the Department of Education during the Anglo-Egyptian regime. This has been promoted, upgraded and developed, since then, to end at the present time into three ministries which are Ministry of Petroleum, Ministry of Minerals and Ministry of Energy. Geoscientific researches are now confined to either: Professional governmental, semi-governmental and private consultancy bodies or Academic Institutions. The two main objectives of the geoscientific research are governed by the scopes and requirements of the research which are either mainly scientific leading to understanding of the Earth in relation to the universe or applied of professional leading to exploitation of the natural material of the Earth weather thy are industrial minerals and rocks, building material, geo-resources of energy and water. Do the available National Governmental, Academic and private research centers satisfy the requirements and needs of the objectives mentioned above? Do we in the Academic Institutions qualify our graduates and candidates to the standard which can meet the requirements of the objectives of the geoscientific research?

This paper attempts to answer these critical queries. But the very painful answer is No,! Why? There are genuine reasons due to many obstacles. These are:

-Sudan is huge country, with surface area equals to 2.5 million Km2, most of which is either difficult to access or inaccessible.

-Bureaucracy and mentality of both policy makers and administrative personnel.

-Underdeveloped infra-structure.

-Lack of security and safety.

-Illiteracy, erratic intolerance tribal behavior which lead to conflicts.

-Not clear, stable, sustainable and encouraging policy of investment.

-In adequacy of competent and skilled man power.

Gold Mineralization Discovery in Umm Saqata- Qala En Nalal areas, Gadarif State-Estern Sudan

Mohamed Azmi

The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

Sudan

A low density stream sediments survey has been conducted in Umm Saqata-Qala En Nahal area, Gadarif State Eastern Sudan. The aim of the study is to explore for gold and associated elements using a cost and time effective exploration method, in a low grade none explored Pan- African volcano-sedimentary greenstone belt. An orientational study has been conducted to determine the optimum fraction (grain size) for sampling in a rich Savana zone. About 12 samples have been collected from a mineralized locality and sieved for 125 m and 63 m. Both of the fractions have been analyzed for gold using wet chemical technique with detection limit 2 ppb. Trace elements have been determined using Aque- regia - ICP technique.

Concentrations of gold mineralization and associated elements are typically found in the finest grain size fraction (-63 m).

As it is the first time to conduct such survey in the study area a number of gold anomalies have been recorded. After selecting the right fraction, the Umm Saqata Qala En Nahal area has been fully geochemically surveyed at a density of 1 sample per 10 Km2.

Keyword: Umm Saqata Qala En Nahal region, Stream sediments survey, Orientational survey, wet chemical and Aque- regia - ICP technique.

Sugarcane Field Productivity in SudanThe Need for Human Resource Development

El Bashir Ali Hammad

Department of Agricultural Engineering

Faculty of Agricultural Technology & Fish Sciences

Al Neelain University

Cane sugar production worldwide and in Sudan was briefly reviewed and productivity of sugarcane fields in Sudan was compared to that of neighboring and leading African sugarcane producers. It was found that field productivity in Sudan was lower than that in neighboring countries.

Human resource development seemed a determining factor for better and competitive field productivity for the Sudanese sugar sector.

Osman Fadl Elsid Ahmed Fadl Elsid

The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

Sudan

This research aims at examining the impact of proposed therapeutic program in reinforcement of perceived self-efficacy by depending on the psychoactive substance in light of the type of psychoactive substance used and duration of abuse. To achieve that objective, the experimental method, was adopted through forming the proposed therapeutic program, and the perceived self-efficacy for abuse scale. It was used as a tool to collect data from the research population which is (68) individuals, who are randomly spilt into two smaller groups of (34); The first is an experimental group. The second is a controlling group. The two groups were equated in terms of variables of research population. The collected data, were analyzed through suitable statistical methods pertaining to SPSS. The most outstanding research outcomes were as follows:

The proposed therapeutic program has great impact on reinforcing the perceived self-efficacy abuse.

There are no substantial variations in amelioration from the perceived self-efficacy for abuse related to the type of the substance except for physical changes in favor of alcohol respondents only.

Theres no significant correlation in amelioration on the perceived self-efficacy for abuse and the duration of abuse.

The results were discussed on the basis of the research theoretical assumptions of the perceived Self-efficacy Theory, and the researcher presented a number of recommendations and propositions.

:

Abass Mohamed Taha Elsiddig

Faculty of Law

Al Neelain University

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Osama Mohamed Osman Khalil

Faculty of Law

Al Neelain University

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Ahmed Ali Ibrahim Hamo

Faculty of Law

Al Neelain University

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Hafiz Mohamed Abdelrasool

The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

Sudan

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Abuaubida Osman

The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

Sudan

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Nabila Mustafa and Hassan Elfadl Ali

The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

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The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

Sudan

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The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

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Ahmed Adam Abdbanat

The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

Sudan

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The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

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Ahmed Mohamed Osman Ahmed Elnjomi

The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

Sudan

. . .

10-10- 2010

2:30 4:30

.

A Comparison between phpdig and sphider Free Search Engines Software

Amin Mubark1 and Awad Hag Ali2

Faculty of Computer Science and Information TechnologyEmails: [email protected], [email protected] search engines have been developed to facilitate fast information retrieval. The aim of this paper is to compare between certain open source search engines software packages (Phpdig and Sphider).The comparison according to these factors (the speed of indexing, the speed of retrieval data and the space storage). Statictical analysis is made (T_test) to find the best engine. Phpdig engine is better than Sphider according to the statictical analysis result. Descriptive Features based Face Recognition using PCA

Mohammed Hassan Osman and Izzeldin Momammed Osman

Faculty of Computr Sciences

This research discusses the problem of dealing with descriptor information that describes human face features. This descriptive information is given by the person who saw the described face. A similar process occurs at police centers where the witness describes the face features of the suspect. The descriptive features(DF) maybe incomplete or they may contain uncertainties.

To solve this problem we provide a computer system based on the descriptive features (DF) to recognize the identities of the suspected persons from the gallery database which contains faces images and their DFs. We name this system Descriptive Features based Face Recognition system (DFFR). The DFFR works in two different ways: the first way when the input descriptive features are certain. Here the system translates the descriptive features into a virtual image, normalizes the image, and then compares it with the gallery database images using PCA method.

The Influence of Crystal Field on Magnetization Densities for some rare earth ions

Salah Amani1 and K. Ayuel2

1Al Neelain University, Department of Physics

2Juba University, Department of Physics

The expection value of the current densities are obtained for Pr3+ ions, using the obtained crystal eigenstates. One interesting result of this calculation is that the classical picture of electron orbital of a central nucleus as in the case of free no larger exists. Due to crystal field symmetry will be broken and the current densities will have another additional component in _ direction. The third component is eliminated.

Face Detection, Tracking and Recognition from Surveillance Video Frames

Gafar Zen Albdeen Salih

The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

Sudan

Email: [email protected]

Human face processing techniques through video, includes face detection, tracking, and recognition, which is considered as a great contribution in solving the problem of human face recognition, we design Surveillance Video Face Recognition system. . It reacts in a form of alarm voice message in the case of an undesirable person or welcomevoice message in the case of a well-knownpersonand this willhelp in catching criminals and reducecrime percentage. It is also useful in Surveillance and monitoring of the daily work by the concerned administration. As such, this system may work as automatic recognition in public streets, and public station, ect. This is known as recognizing outdoor problems, in addition to the indoor problems like banks, supermarkets, government institution, private sector, and so on. Moreover, it can help in other application such as video retrieval which includes a definite face, and recognizing important people who appear frequently in large video archives such as political leaders innews video, the players in football video, or a hero in a movie, which provides us with actual information that influences the service for all people. This research aims at designinghigh performance algorithms for face detection and tracking from video sequences. it operate on a real time system. These algorithm permit segmentation and detection of multiple faces in the frame Igenfaces technique was also appliedby using special statistical methods to generateeigenfaces subspace in order to reduce dimension for pixels of images. The problem with this type of images is that there is a relation between many pixels and we expect more datareducing. Hence, the present study aims to design recognition algorithm that depends on principle component analysis (PCA). It extracts information from many pixels and reduces it to the least number of principle component and disregard the component that are not constant information whichrepresent the noise that must be got rid ofwithoutloss of data. This reduces thetime of the processing andstorage memory in the computer.PCA is used, because it is the best linear method in data reducing. PCA technique in general, depends on reducing and analyzing a set of covariance for small set of linear adaptationfor basic variable.Furthermore, we evaluate and compare our results. Test our data on standard databases of faces like ORL, Yale, and YaleB. The detection & tracking algorithms in addition to the recognition of algorithm are used in Surveillance Video Face Recognition system.

CLUSTERING COMPONENT OF DESIGN EFFECT

Nidal Mohamed Mustafa Abdel Salam & Zain El-Abdeen Abdel Rahim El-Bashir

Department of Statistic & Computation

Faculty of Technology of Mathematical Sciences & Statistics

Al Neelain University

This paper is concerned with expressions for the clustering component of the design effect in terms of parameters that are expected to affect the design effect in cluster sampling, for equal cluster sizes and unequal probability sampling (PPS). This involves investigating the pattern of design effect when such parameters change using factorial combination method. It is shown that the expressions for the design effect helped to reveal the impact of clusters' means, clusters' variances, clusters' homogeneity, sample stages, and sample sizes on the design effect. And that the pattern of design effect changes significantly with change in those parameters.

Keywords: Cluster Sampling, Population Design Effect (Deff), intra-cluster correlation coefficient, factorial combination.

10-10-2010

2:30 -4:30

Mahir Ibrahim Aubaid Emam

The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

Sudan

Email [email protected]

:

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4/

Mohamed Elsaddig Abdalla Mohamed Zain

The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

Sudan

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Ahmed Mohamed Satti

The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

Sudan

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Ayman Mohamed Zain and Osama Mohamed Osman

The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

Sudan

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The Aspects of Environmental Crime in Sudan

Salma Mohamed Salih

The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

Sudan

[email protected]

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Sources of commercial arbitration in the Yemeni and Sudanese law

Muteeb Mubarak Bayazid

The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

Sudan

Email: [email protected]

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Nazik Elhashimi

The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

Sudan

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Hytham Abualgasim Mohamed Ahmed Semsaa

The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

Sudan

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Muhamed Mustafa Hassan Ali

The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

Sudan

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Faysal Awad Hasan Mohammed and Mohamed Farah Abdelhalim

The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

Sudan

Email: [email protected]

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AlFadl Altayeb Mohammed Zain

The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

Sudan

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The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

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11-10 - 2010

11:30 2:30

Improvement techniques of the haemopoietic stem cell (CD34) Isolation, Culturing and Engraftment by albino rats obtained from umbilical cord blood

1Hiba Badreldin Khalil,2Hala Gabr Metwally,3Ahmed M. Taha, 4Elshibli Elshibli and 5Imad Mohammed Fadl-Elmula

1Department of Hematology Medical Laboratory Sciences

Al-Neelain University-Sudan

2Department of Clinical Pathology- Faculty of Medicine-Cairo University- Egypt 3Department of zoology Faculty of science Zagazig University Egypt

4Department of Biostatistics Al-Neelain University- Sudan

5Department of Clinical Cytogenetic- Medical Laboratory Sciences- Al-Neelain University

Human umbilical cord blood is a rich source of haemopoietic stem cells (CD34( beside the bone marrow. The number of CD34 from BM decrease significantly with age, and their isolation is invasive and can cause infection, bleeding, and chronic pain. Human UCB is obtained after full-term delivery of the newborn from a sample that would inevitably be discarded. The process is noninvasive, painless, and without harm for the mother or the infant. In the present study we aimed to assess isolation, differentiation, and the proliferation using variable techniques.

Keywords: Cord blood . Haemopoietic stem cell. CD34 . Albino rats. Methylcellulose

SMN Gene dosage scans analysis suggests the gene conversion as a leading genetic alteration in families with no SMN1 deletion.

Ali Alsanousiab, Mohammed Al Jumaha, Ibrahim Al Abuldulkarima , Zahra Rehanaa, Elshibli Elshiblib and Imad Fadal-ElMulab

a Neurogenetics Laboratory, Department of Medicine, King Fahad National Guard Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

bAlNeelain University, Faculty of Medical postgraduate studies, Khartoum, Sudan.

Introduction: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), an autosomal recessive neurogenetic disorder, is a leading genetic killer in young children and one of the common causes of disability presenting with proximal weakness in adults. The main pathogenic mutation is a deletion in the telomeric copy of the survival motor neuron gene (SMN1). Most carriers of SMA have one chromosome 5 with a normal SMN1 gene and one with a deleted SMN1 gene. The gene dosage scan analysis has been optimized as a new method to determine the SMN1 and SMN2 copies number in 10 families with SMA family history and at least one member with clinical features suggestive of SMA diagnosis.

Material and Methods: Total number of 36 subjects including 10 patients didnt show SMN1-Exon7 deletion and their different descend families. Gene dosages scan analysis using multiplex PCR fragments analysis in 310 ABI genetic analyzer. Results:All patients included in this group showed no deletion for SMN1-Exon7 in restriction digest assays, 30% of them were females and 70% were males. 90% of patients showed two SMN1 copies combined with reduced number of SMN2 copies (i.e., 30% with no SMN2 copies, 60% with single copy of SMN2). Around 10% of the same group showed single SMN1 and single SMN2 copy. The reduced number of SMN2 that correlates with SMA clinical feature associated with two copies of SMN1 makes the gene conversion the most likely underlying mechanism for 5q13 region instability during the genetic information transmission between generations. This postulation also has been supported by the study findings in parents SMN genetic profile as direct influence during the transmission of the inherited genetic material. Although this study also suggests a major paternal influence in SMN2 copies number; statistically the maternal influence in transmitting altered or reduced SMN2 copies number is more stronger than the paternal influence in getting reduced SMN2 copies not balanced with SMN1 copies number (80% of mothers showed reduced or absent SMN2 copies compared with 66.67% of the fathers showed single copy of SMN2 showed 0 to 1 SMN2 copies). Conclusion: These findings strongly suggestive of centromeric SMN2 gene conversion to an altered and or inactive telomeric SMN1 in SMA patients within the families included for this study.

Determination of Flouride in Natural Water in Kassala

Zeinab Elrabei, Nada elamim and Mustafa koya

Nyala University

This study aims at the determination of the concentration of fluoride in natural drinking water in Kas and some other villages around it, then comparing them with water samples collected from Nyala. Six samples were collected randomly for this study, three of them from Kas(Eldom Ateam Well Seliman well,and Wadi Garra),the other three samples from DIbbis,Omarrei and Elhamia villages. Five other samples, were also collected from Nyala for comparison, these samples represent all types of drinking water sources. A chemical analysis had been carried out for these samples to determine the concentration of fluoride and comparing it to standard limits that are recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Two methods were used in this study: Fluoride Ion Selective Electrode (FISE). Colorimetric method From the results obtained in this study, it was found that concentration of fluoride higher than that of(WHO), specially Elhamia sample (11.2 ppm), nearly all samples collected from Nyala contain fluoride concentration within the (WHO) limits, except that sample collected from Hay Elnahada (3 ppm).

Detection of celiac disease in Sudanese with type 1 autoimmune diabetes mellitus using anti-tissue transglutinamase antibodies

Ahmed Bolad1, Amal Hussein2 and Omer AbuRaida3

1Corresponding author: MD, Ph.D., Post Doctoral Fellow, Associate Professor Alneelain University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Microbiology and Unit of Immunology, Alneelain Medical Research Centre

2Omdurman Military Hospital, Central Lab.

3Omdurman Emergency Pediatric Hospital

Gluten sensitive enteropathy (celiac disease (CD)) has strong association with diabetes mellitus (DM) type 1. Since, 2-3% of CD patients have selective IgA deficiency, the majority of the available tests may fail to show the auto-antibodies (the IgA endomysial antibody (EMA)). To prevent such a false negativity, a new Enzyme Linked Immune Sorbent Assay (ELISA) test has been introduced to detect both IgG and IgA antibodies reactive with tissue transglutaminase (tTG), an autoantigen in CD patients. This study has been conducted to detect celiac disease in Sudanese with type 1 autoimmune diabetes using anti-tissue transglutinamase antibodies. To verify this, samples were collected from forty randomly selected patients with DM type 1 who were attending the outpatient clinics in Gabir Abu Eliz diabetic center and Omdurman pediatric emergency Hospital. Anti-tTG as a marker for CD was determined in all selected samples. All the results were analyzed using Statistical Packages of Social Sciences (SPSS). Thirteen of the 40 patients with DM type 1 (32.5%) were identified as having CD using anti-tTG. In conclusion, the present study revealed that patients with DM type 1 have an increased tendency to develop CD. Since the tTG test has similar sensitivity to EMA, tTG and IgG anti-gliadin may be the only tests evidence of CD and correlate best with gut damage. Therefore, the high frequency of celiac disease in the present study could be explained by using the tTG test as a detecting tool.

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus type 1; Celiac disease and diabetes mellitus type 1 association.

Developing of adjustable voxel male phantom for radiotherapy planning

Elhussien. H.M Sirelkhatim1, Abdel Monim Artoli2

1 National Center for Radiations and Isotopes-Khartoum (RICK).

2 Al Neelin Universities, Khartoum 11121, Sudan.

Poly mesh model for the outer surface of Rando physical phantom was developed using VTK software. Two approaches were adopted to adjust this model for purpose of radiotherapy virtual planning. In the first approach we divide surface of the model to parts, then we modify these parts according to data of target body. In the second approach we modify the surface as all due to acquired contours of target body. A strategy was suggested to combine the two approaches depending on the shown Result.

Keywords: Radiotherapy, virtual planning, Rando Phantom, VTK

The Effect of Electromagnetic Field on Human Health (Man-made visible light but not static magnetic field exposure causes endocrine toxicity to the pituitary gland and testis of male mice)

Yassir Salaheldin Khalil Osman

Faculty of Engineering Al Neelain University

The study was planned to evaluate the effect of two different electromagnetic fields (EMF) on experimental animals at different levels. In the first experiment, male CD1 mice at 6 weeks of age were exposed to isothermal non-ionizing EMF, represented by the man-made visible light (artificial visible light of intensity of 77 mW/cm2 on the area of 72.5 cm2 and frequency of EM radiation between 3.9x1014 Hz and 7.5x1014 Hz W/cm2) 8 hours per day for 3, 6 and 12 days. In the second experiment, similar mice like experiment (1) were exposed to 1 milli Tesla (mT) static DC-magnetic field (DC-MF) (12 hours/day) for 15, 30 or 60 days. The present used EM strengths were chosen because they are almost similar to the level of human exposures. The animals were sacrificed, grossly examined for abnormalities, and organs, tissues and blood were collected and then prepared for histopathological and biochemical investigations. The preliminary results of experiment (1) showed that exposure to visible light exerted dramatic histological alterations of the testes and pituitary glands of the mice particularly after 12 days of exposure. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis for both organs, serum biochemical analyses and other investigations are currently under evaluation. The results of experiment (2) interestingly showed that the static DC- MF did not show any adverse histopathological effect on any organ of the animal body at any dose level used for exposure. In general, the results indicate that man-made visible light radiation, but not static DC-MF, may affect the endocrine homeostasis of mice by exerting histopathological changes and tissue toxicity in the pituitary gland that may subsequently cause an unfavorable effect on the histological architecture of the testes of mice. Further confirmatory biological investigations are currently going on for this experiment.

The Environmental Impact of Soap and Detergent Industry in Khartoum State, Sudan

Amira Hammad and A. K. Sabir Ali

The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

Sudan

Although the industrial activities are considered as a good support for economic development that contributes to increasing the national income and diverse it sources, they are known to impose many adverse effects on the environment e.g. pollution. This study was carried out to survey the environmental impact of soap and detergents industry in Khartoum North and Omdurman industrial areas. Eight factories were selected for the present study: The Sudanese Arab Company, Bittar, Hemeidan, Magassir, Conford Soap and Toothpaste, Elgarnoog, Tawfeeg and Tajooj. The data was collected using experimental methods and questionnaires. The experimental methods considers the following parameters in the different factories: temperature fluctuations, pH,biochemical oxygen demand BOD, chemical oxygen demand COD, total suspended solids TSS, oil and grease, alkalinity of the liquid waste, and some minerals, mainly Nickel, Cadmium and Lead environmental stress and organic matter. The questionnaires data which was statistically analyzed considers the environmental issues associated with this industry.The results showed that the factories in Khartoum North and Omdurman Industrial areas gave different physical and chemical parameters depending on the type of raw materials and products of each factory i. e. soap or detergents. There is increasing evidence that this commercial activity created many hazards in the environment and threatens the public health especially in the vicinity of the factories. This is mainly attributed to negligence and lack of almost any environmental or safety measures taken by the industry sector. Many recommendations were put forward to solve the environmental problems created by this industry.

11 10 2010

11:30 2:30

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Alaa Abdelfatah and Abdelhamid and Ibrahim Abdelrahman Ibrahim

The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

Sudan

E.mail: [email protected]

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Tawgig Hassan Tawfig

The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

Sudan

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Mohamed Burhan

The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

Sudan

Email: [email protected]

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Hassan Eisa Alsheikh and Yuossif Hussin Mohamed Albasheir

The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

Sudan

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Hasab Alrasool Ali Alfaki Osman

The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

Sudan

( Free Open Access of Information).

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Abdelfatah Abdelaziz Mohamed and MustafaKhogali

The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

Sudan

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Difficulties of Modal Auxiliary Verbs Experienced by Sudanese Learners of English at Tertiary Level

Abbas Elsiddig Mohammed Ahmed

English Language Department

Faculty of Arts

Al-Neelain University

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the problems of Modal Verbs experienced by Sudanese learners of English at tertiary level. Special emphasis is placed on Central Modals, Marginal Modals and Phrasal Modals. The assumption goal behind such an investigation is the fact that the instructors of English do not give due attention to the teaching of Modal Verbs. Moreover, the teaching materials used at tertiary level do not cover the area of Modals verbs sufficiently. So, this paper attempts to identify the frequently occurring errors in the performance of the students and offer remedial solutions to them. The data were collected by using a multi choice test as an instrument. Following to the tabulation of data, the results were computed and analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The results show that the students experienced difficulties with Modal verbs. On the basis of the conclusion drawn from the analysis discussion of data, relevant recommendations were made for offering solution for the problem.

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Atif Adam Ali Bakhit

The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

Sudan

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2000 2005

Sadia RagebRasheid and Abdelaziz Adelrahim Suliman

The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

Sudan

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Hafiz Belal

The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

Sudan

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Abd Elmotalib Abu zaid Osman Ali and Abdelmajed Abdalla Hassan

The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

Sudan

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Zekra Mohamed Ahmed Ibraheim

The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

Sudan

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1990-2005

Abdalla ElZain Elnoor

The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

Sudan

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3) (1983-2005) .

( )Abd Elmonaim A. l. HassabaThe Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

Sudan

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Sample proposal to develop a standard cost analysis of variances in the light of developments in modern manufacturing environment

Mohamed Salim Mohamed Khair Saeid

The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

Sudan

The study addresses the standard cost system and its role in cost control in light of the changes that have taken place in the modern manufacturing environment. The research problem focuses on the changes in the administrative strategies associated with modern manufacturing environment on the effectiveness of the oversight role of standard costs, and to consider the possibility of reaching as far as possible an integrated framework for the development of the oversight role of standard costs to fit with the strategies of the modern manufacturing environment and avoid the shortcomings inherent. The importance of research stems from the rapid changes and the continuing and intensified competition among businesses at the present time are not accompanied by a similar development in the methods and tools used by the system of standard costs, which requires attention to the development of these methods so as not to disclose information that is not appropriate that may mislead or forces management to search for wrong priorities. The research aimed to determine the impact of manufacturing techniques of modern control tools on the cost elements, and then analyze the adequacy of methods used in the standard costs under the traditional manufacturing systems for use as tools for control systems in modern manufacturing and, finally, to develop and improve the system of standard costs to become suitable for modern manufacturing techniques. To achieve the objectives of the study, the following hypotheses were tested: 1- The traditional standard cost system is not adequate as a tool for control in light of developments in modern manufacturing environment, 2- The Traditional standard costing system is still able to provide some important information and feasibility to the Administration, 3- The traditional standard cost system requires considerable development to keep pace with modern manufacturing environment.

After discussing these hypotheses, the researcher obtained a number of results; the most important are as follows: 1- The cost-accounting standard lagged behind the changes and developments in manufacturing technology, making it not viable for use in the modern manufacturing environment. 2- The traditional standard cost system is still able to provide important information relevant and useful to the department, 3- The traditional standard costing system requires development to keep pace with the modern manufacturing environment. Based on the results of the study, the researcher recommends a number of recommendations.

Amal Ibrahim Elsheikh

The Graduate College

Al Neelain University

11121 Khartoum

Sudan

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