Introduction: ProblemRecognition of Problem
This year, for the first time since before the Ice Age, CO2 will not fall below the 400 ppm mark. -NOAA (2016)
Algae could be used to sequester carbon
Unless made into a product with a long useful lifespan it will decay and re-release the CO2
Definition of Problem for South Carolina
Pithophora is a native algae to South Carolina that is most commonly controlled through the use of herbicides. - DNR (2015)
Biological- Design and model the process of making paper pulp from algae that can be
substituted for wood in traditional paper presses- Improve bleaching processes through chlorophyll-related options
Structural - Create a paper product that stands up to the TAPPI standards of store bought
wood pulp paperMechanical
- Develop a more sophisticated way to clean the filamentous algae.- Determine a simplified paper making process utilizing the benefits of
algae-based pulp - Decrease pulping and drying times
Skills - Lack of paper making knowledge
Budgetary - Algal paper production must be comparable in price to similar wood pulp based papers
Space - Can only keep a limited amount of algae for testing at a given time
Logistics - Lab scale tests and procedures are very different from industrial application
Time - Algae growth rate and seasonal weather limits algal biomass available for testing
Ethical - North Charlestons Kapstone plant uses chemical pulping which must be heavily treated before being released into the Cooper River.
Safety - Bioaccumulation of toxins could occur in marine life living in or near the effluent flows of paper mills if not treated properly.
Ecological - Grass Carp and Mozambique Tilapia have been used in the past to try to control blooms of filamentous algae, but have been found to prefer other aquatic grasses.
Introduction: Questions of User
Person using the finished paper.
Will traditional pens and pencils write legibly on Algal paper?
Is the algal paper as durable as comparable traditional papers?
Will the paper last as long as traditional papers?
Introduction: Questions of Client
Paper press - What is required to store algal pulp for processes?- What kind of retrofitting would need to be done for the substitution to take
place?- Can wood and algae pulp be mixed?
Introduction: Questions of Designer
- What quantity of pulp will be required to maintain an operation?
- What will be the required strength of the pressed paper?
- What type of algae will be used?
Governing EquationsBlending Scale-Up
Power in an unbaffled tank
Limiting Vortexing Pbaffled = Punbaffled
Power in a baffled tank P = kN3D5
Identifying the Algae
Scientific Name: Pithophora oedogonia
Common Name: Cotton-ball Algae/Horsehair Algae
Design: Small Scale Harvesting
Preliminary data: Drying Preliminary Trial:
Oven dried at 68 over 4 days Algae was successfully dried with a
Trial 1: Oven was set to 103 Algae was weighed every
30 minutes for 5.5 hours Drying occurred at 0.85
Preliminary data: Pulping
Proctor Silex 59735 immersion blender
Tested dried and undried samples
Fiber lengths of pulped paper averaged 6.45 mm.
Preliminary data: Pulping dried and undried Undried
Blends very quickly and easily Cells do not rupture or shorten Color stays very green
Dried Must rehydrate for easy pulping Cells rupture and shorten Color fades over time
Preliminary data: Pulping Dried and Undried
Forming Handsheets for qualitative analysis of Pulp
Based on TAPPI standards T 218 sp-11 Utilized rehydrated dried algae from
preliminary drying test Proctor Silex 59735 immersion blender was
used for pulping
Forming Handsheets for Qualitative Analysis of Pulp
100 mm diameter Bchner
funnel was used to strain pulp
Pressed between granite slabs
Allowed to air dry overnight
Achieved finished test weight of
Bleaching Alternative: Ultraviolet Light
Day 1 Day 3 Day 4
Bleaching: Other Alternatives Ultra Violet light seems to be the best and least intrusive option
Requires significant time investment and does not completely whiten paper
Repetitive drying and re-soaking of algae to wash out chlorophyll Will be energy intensive
Chemical Bleaching is another option to explore as it will most likely be the most successful at completely removing all color
Effluent wastewater will have to be treated
Can be used to help sequester carbon
Make use of problematic algal blooms
Chemical pulping techniques are not required for algae as in traditional paper pulping
Bleaching can be accomplished through drying and UV light
Thank You!Dr. Caye Drapcho
Dr. Terry Walker
Mr. Tom Jones
ReferencesAyhan Demirbas, M. F. (2011). Importance of algae oil as a source of biodiesel. Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 52, 163-170.
Teschke, K. (n.d.). Chapter 72 - Pulp and Paper Industry. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety, Chapt. 72.
Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network (2016). Trends in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide: Full Mauna Loa CO2 record. Earth System Research Laboratory.
Ben Xu, P. L. (2013). Study of the Flow Mixing in a novel ARID raceway for algae production. Renewable Energy Vol. 62, 249-257.
Environmental Protection Agency (1990). Chemical Wood Pulping. Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, Ch 10 S02
South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (2015). Fish Pond Management Information. Common Aquatic Plant Management Problems.
Georgia Tech School of Economics (2003-16). Pulp Mills, Pulp & Paper Mills, Paper Mills in South Carolina. Center for Paper Business and Industry Studies.
ReferencesStein, T. (2016). Carbon dioxide levels race past troubling milestone. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
Kapstone. (2016). About Kapstone. Kapstone Paper and Packaging Corporation.
Pokhrel, D., Viraraghavan, T. (2004). Treatment of pulp and paper mill wastewater--a review. Science of the Total Environment. Vol. 333, Issues 1-3. .
Kocamemi, B. A., (n.d.). Environmental Engineering Unit Operations, Chapter 6 Mixing. Marmara University Department of Environmental Engineering. .
Handsheet notes and thickness calculations Blending notes and handsheet pressure calculations