Organic compound folable

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Remake of foldable #2

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  • 1. Organic Molecules

2. 4 Groups of Organic Compounds Found in Living Things Organic Compounds Organic means contains Carbon 3. Carbon Molecules Carbon-based molecules have three basic structures Straight Chain Branched Chain Ring All structures based on carbon's ability to form four covalent bonds 4. Biomolecules = large organic compounds Built by bonding small molecules (monomers) together to form chains called polymers Formed by a chemical reaction called condensation 5. Condensation H OH H20 H20 H20 lysis = split apart HOW TO BUILD A LARGER MOLECULE BY COMBINING SMALLER MOLECULES. HOW TO BREAK DOWN A LARGER MOLECULE INTO SMALLER MOLECULES. Hydrolysis 6. ISOMER = Compounds with the same chemical formula, but different 3D structure Chemical formula C6H1206 = glucose C6H1206 = fructose 3D Structure O OH OH HO OH CH2OH O HOCH2 OH OH OH CH2OH 7. CARBOHYDRATES Made up of C, H, & O Main source of energy Used for structural purposes in plants (cellulose) 8. CARBOHYDRATES SIMPLEST = single sugar molecules = monosaccharide Example: glucose, fructose glucose Monosaccharide fructose Monosaccharide Disaccharide sucrose H20 Think of each monosaccharide as a lego piece. A disaccharide is made up of two monosaccharides 9. CARBOHYDRATES LARGEST = polysaccharide Example: starch, fiber, cellulose, glycogen Polysaccharide A polysaccharide is made up of many monosaccharides. 10. Lipids Aka fats Made up of mostly C & H Ex: fats, oils, waxes, steroids Used to store energy (insulation, too) Part of the cell membrane and waterproof covering ALL are INSOLUBLE in water because they are NON POLAR 11. Most fats in our bodies and foods are in the form of 'triglyceride' molecules = one glycerol (or glycerin, a sugar alcohol) + three fatty acids attached Lipids 12. Lipids 2 Long chain of CH is called fatty acid chain Example: lard = maximum # of H+ atoms Example: olive oil = at least 1 C = C (carbon-carbon double bond) = more than one C = C (carbon-carbon double bond) Example: cooking oil 13. Nucleic Acids They contain C, H, O, N, P Nucleic Acids = polymers (made up of nucleotides) nucleotide nucleotide nucleotide N N N Nucleic Acid monomermonomer 14. Nucleic Acids 3 parts of a nucleotide A) 5 carbon sugar (pentose) B) Phosphate group C) Nitrogenous base 15. Nucleic Acids Store and transmit genetic info 2 types DNA sugar = deoxyribose RNA sugar = ribose 16. Proteins Contain C, H, O, N and some S Basic building block = Amino acid (AA) Peptide bonds hold molecules (AA) together Peptide bond 17. Proteins 3 parts of an amino acid amino acid (-NH2) carboxyl group (-COOH) R group (always different) Hydrogen bonds fold amino acid into specific shapes for function 18. Protein Each protein has a specific role Control rate of reaction Regulate cell processes Form bones and muscles Transport substances in/out of cell Example: enzymes = proteins that change rate of reaction, increase pH and temperature