Euthanasia Slide Presentation

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Euthanasia in Netherlands

euthanasia

ContentsDefinition of euthanasiaTypes of euthanasiaLaw on euthanasia Acceptance of euthanasia in MalaysiaIslamic Perspective

INTRODUCTIONDEFINITION & TYPES

What is euthanasia ? ( euthanatos )/eu : good or well : death

Euthanasia or mercy killing is the practice of intentionally ending a life in order to relievepainandsuffering.

orAssisted suicideFrancis Bacon ( 17th Century ) easy, painless and happy death

Types of euthanasiaActive involve the use of lethal substances or forces, such as administering a lethal injectionPassive involve the withholding or withdrawing treatment that is necessary to maintain life.

World War II GermanyOctober, 1939- Adolf Hitler enacted the Action T4 program.Euthanize incurably ill, physically or mentally disabled, emotionally distraught, and elderly people.Gas chambersStarved to death

LAWSOF EUTHANASIA

Canada

CanadaEuthanasia is not yet legal in Canada but it will be by June 2016.

Netherlands

originallyDutch law banned euthanasia 2002Termination of Life on Request and Assisted Suicide Act Makes euthanasia and assisted suicide legal under certain conditions1973Postma casePostmas wife, Truus, performed euthanasia on his mother by injecting 200 mg morphine. She had suffered a brain haemorrhage, was deaf, had difficulty speaking, and had to be tied to her chair in her nursing home to avoid her falling. She repeatedly begged her daughter-in-law to end her life.Given symbolic punishment : one week suspended prison sentence and 12 months' probation

Dutch Voluntary Euthanasia Society was launched Timeline.

Termination of Life on Request and Assisted Suicide Act Euthanasia is included in the Criminal Code of a special ground for exemption from criminal liability : doctors who terminate life on request or assist in a patients suicide can no longer be prosecuted if they fulfil these conditions:Be satisfied that the patients request is voluntary and well-consideredBe satisfied that the patients suffering is unbearable and that there is no prospect of improvementInform the patient of his or her situation and further prognosisDiscuss the situation with the patient and come to the joint conclusion that there is no other reasonable solutionConsult at least one other physician with no connection to the case, who must then see the patient and state in writing that the attending physician has satisfied the due care criteria listed in the four points above

Gronigen ProtocolText created in September 2004 by a committee of physicians and others leading by Eduard Verhagen, the medical director of the Department of Pediatrics at the University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG) The protocol has been approved by the Dutch National Association of Pediatricians.It contains directives with criteria under which physicians can perform "active ending of life on infants" (child euthanasia) without fear of legal prosecutionIn the Gronigen Protocol, the termination of a child's life (under age 12) is acceptable if these 4 requirements were properly fulfilled: The presence of hopeless and unbearable sufferingThe consent of the parents to termination of lifeMedical consultation having taken placeCareful execution of the termination

Practice of Euthanasia in Netherlands

1st March 2012Netherlands Euthanasia Lobby (NVVE) launched six Mobile Euthanasia Teams as part of a euthanasia clinic to cause an estimated 1000 euthanasia deaths to people who were either turned down by their doctor, or who are disabled or frail elderly and lacking mobility.

Report from Dutch News on 24th September 2013, it is stated that there were 4188 reported requests for euthanasia in 2012 which is double the number in 2006

Australia

Illegal in AustraliaAlthough the public supports legalizing Euthanasia , Australian governments continue to resist legalizing euthanasia or assisted suicide.Opponents of legalization: Once we take the significant step of allowing doctors to kill patients in narrowly defined circumstances, there will be pressure to increase the range of circumstances with amending legislation. And its easier to amendexisting legislation than enact it in the first placeProponents of legalization: Generally respond by claiming there is no evidence of either concern being realized in places where euthanasia is lawful

Who should have the access: should it be restricted to the terminally ill?Should it extend to people who have an unbearable physical condition which does not make them terminally ill?Should it even extend to people who arent physically ill at all, but are experiencing unbearable mental suffering?

North TerritoryEuthanasia was legalized (Rights of the Terminally III Act 1995)Passed by a vote of 15 to 10 but was defeated by 14 votes to 10 a year later in 1996Soon after, the law was voided by theEuthanasia Laws Act 1997 However, before the Commonwealth government made this amendment, three people had already died through physicianassisted suicide

Japan

Known as anraku-shi, means peaceful deathNo acts or official laws regarding the status of euthanasia based on Japanese Penal Code in The Constitution of JapanThe Supreme Court has never ruled on the matter; two local court cases that happened back in 1962 and 1995 frameworks and conditions for Japans euthanasia policyOne can legally end patients life as long as the conditions are fulfilled

DEATH OF DIGNITYConcept emerged in 1970s but become a hot topic recentlyIncrement in aging & childless Japanese society lead to the government starting to reflect on legalizing it; a practice meant to cut medical costs of patients in a vegetative stateDefined as : The act of letting a terminally ill or a patient in a persistent vegetative state die by withdrawing life-sustaining treatment on request in the form of a living will

ACCEPTANCE OF EUTHANASIA AMONG MALAYSIANS

Main purpose: To focus on public awareness and thoughts of euthanasia in Malaysia.

ACCEPTANCE OF EUTHANASIA AMONG MALAYSIANS77.7% (69)22.3% (21)90 responses had been submitted Age 19-60 years oldMostly students, some are teachers, engineers and doctors.

ACCEPTANCE OF EUTHANASIA AMONG MALAYSIANS

HOW MUCH DO YOU AGREE ON EUTHANASIA BEING CARRIED OUT IN MALAYSIA?Arguments for euthanasiahelp relieving pain low chances to livesave cost, time and energy of doctorsArguments against euthanasiaReligious factorEquals to suicide and murderAgainst ethics

EUTHANASIA BASED ON ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVES

EUTHANASIA AND SUICIDE IN ISLAMMuslims are against euthanasia. They believe that all human life is sacred/pure because it is given by Allah and Allah chooses how long each person will live. Human beings should not interfere in this.

Surah Al-IsraSurah Ali ImranSurah An-Nahl

EUTHANASIA IN ISLAMHowever, the Islamic Code of Medical Ethics states "it is futile to diligently keep the patient in a vegetative state by heroic meansIt is the process of life that the doctor aims to maintain and not the process of dying".

CONCLUSIONSuffering and pain are parts of our life. The lesson in endurance when patient was in pain is to be thankful in times of health and patient in times of sickness.