- . , , ( 371/89 , (2) 309, 330).
- - - . , .. . ( Chitty H untley , , , 31).
- -Domain Name / ; -Domain Name ; ( Meta Tag ); - ( Deep Linking );( Frame ); .
- - 1. ;2. ; 3. / ( 12). * , , .
- Sec 1125.False designation of origin, false descriptions, and dillution forbidden (1) Any person who, on or in connection withany goods or services... uses in commerce any word, term, name, symbol, or device, or any combination thereof, or any false designation of origin, false or misleading description of fact, or false or misleading representation of fact, which -(A) is likely to cause confusion, or to cause mistake, or to deceive as to the affiliation, connection, or association of such person with another person, or as to the origin, sponsorship, or approval of his or her goods, services, or commercial activities by another person, or(B) in commercial advertising or promotion, misrepresents the nature, characteristics, qualities, or geographic origin of his or her or another persons goods, services, or commercial activities, shall be liable in a civil action by any person... likely to be damaged by such act.
- 1125 (C)Remedies for dillution of famous marks(1) the owner of a famous mark shall beentitled, subject to the principles of equity andupon suchterms as the court deems reasonable, to an injunction against another persons commercial use in commerce of a mark or trade name, if such use begins after the mark has become famous and causes dilution of the distinctive quality of the mark In determining whether a mark is distinctive and famous. A court may consider factors such as, but not limited to - ... Distinctiveness of the mark; duration and extent of use in connection with the goods or services; duration and extent of advertising; channels of trade; similar marks; whether the mark was registered.
- 1125 (C)(4) The following shall not be actionable under this section:(A) Fair use of a famous mark by another person in comparative commercial advertising or promotion to identify the competing goods or services of the owner of the famous mark.(B) Noncommercial use of a mark.(C) All forms of news reporting and news commentary.
12. Anticybersquatting consumer protection act 1999
- to protect consumers and American businesses, to promote the growth of online commerce, and to provide clarity in the law for trademark owners by prohibiting the bad-faith and abusive registration of distinctive marks as internet domain names with the intent to profit from the goodwill associated with such marks a practice commonly referred as cybersquatting
13. Anticybersquatting consumer protection act 1999
- A person shall be libel in civil action by the owner of a mark, including a personal name which is protected as a mark under this section, if, without regard to the goods and services of the parties, that person
- (I) has a bad faith to profit from the mark, including a personal name which is protected as a mark..
- (II) registers, traffics in, or uses a domain name that
- (I) in the case of a mark that is distinctive at the time of registration of the domain name, is identical or confusingly similar to that mark
- (II) in the case of a famous mark that is famous at the time of registration of the domain name, is identical or confusingly similar to or dilutive of that mark..
- -FTP -File Transfer Protocol
15. - 16. - - - 17.
- Internet Protocol Address- -- cnn.
- - Domain Name - - - - --- cnn.
http://188.8.131.52 www.cnn.com 18. -
www.cnn.com *TLD -Top LevelDomain SLD - Second-Level Domain www=world wide web *ftp,news- . , , , . www.walla.co.il -il=israel 19. -
- - - www.company name.com( com co + ) +com . -
- ( )- - - - - , - - html . - , .
www.dell.com www.bezeq.co.il 20. - 21. Dell Computer - Laptop, Desktop, Workstation,< META NAME="keywords"CONTENT="Dell Computer Corporation, Custom, Configuration, PCs, Laptops, Portables, Computer, Notebook, Hardware, Build, Value, Technology, Servers, Dell, Online, Order" > < META NAME="description"CONTENT="Dell offers custom configuration of personal computers, portables and servers. Build your own PC--get the best value with latest technology--order online." > - - .
- - ( Linking ), Meta tag ,( Frames ); - Watermark ; ( Spam ); ( Sniffer ); .
24. - 25.
- Domain Name( ) / / - , , . : Cardservice Internationa l v.Mcgee950 F. Supp 737 E.D Va 1997;Interstellar Starshipv.Epix983 F. Supp 1331 D. Or. 1997
- Domain Name Domain Name - , . :PaineWebber Inc . v wwwpainewebber.comE.D Va 1999 ; Domain Name - :L ockhead Martinv.NSI985 F. Supp. 949, 956 C.D Cal 1997
- Anticybersquatting consumer protection Act
- Sportys Farm v. Sportmans (2 ndCir 2.2.2000)
- www.waltdisney.co.il ( 28.1.2000).
- - ( Meta Tag ) . :Niton Corporationv.Radiation Monitoring Devices27 F. Supp 2d D. Mass 1998
- ( Deep Linking ) . :Ticketmasterv.MicrosoftC.D Cal 1997 . * :Shetland Timesv.Dr. Jonathan Wills andZ etnewsF.S.R 1997 * , .
- ( Framing ) . : Whashington Postv.TotalNewsS.D.NY c.a 97-1190.
- - , , . sportys -waltdisney . :Hartford House v.MicrosoftSup. Ct. Ca. 8.12.98
- - . : American Onlinev.LCGMca. 98-102 E.D Va 10.11.98 :Cyber PromotionvAmerican Online Corp948 F. Supp 436 E.D Pa 1996
- - ,Keying , - :Playboy Enterprises Incv.Netscape Communications CorpC.D Cal 1999
- - ; - . :Ford Motor Companyv.Robert LaneE.D Mich 7.9.99- - - ..
- - - . :Earth Incv.Mark SchlackS.D.NY 27.10.99
32. 33. Brookfield Communication v. West Coast 34. -Domain Name - -
- Brookfield Communication v. West Coast Entertainment Corporation (9th Cir 22.4.99)
- , , , , . ,moviebuff , . , , , moviebuff.com , , , . , moviebuff - , -meta tag . - .
35. Brookfield v. west- - /
- - moviebuff . - , . - , . , - , , - . .
- - / - - : , ; / / ; ; ; ; ; ; - . - - . .
- - - , , com , .com, - , . / - - , , ; , , - - - . , , - , .
- , . , - - , . - . . , . - ; - - - - .
- 38. Brookfield -
- - : , , . , - - . , - Initial Interest Confusion- , ( ).
- To capture initial consumer attention, even though no actual sale is finally completed as a result of the confusion, may be still an inf