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: ......2.......51 . ...61.1 ..61.2 ....81.3 ............91.4 LAN VRN ....91.5 Ethernet ...101.6 ...121.7 141.8 .161.9 ...................................................................................................171.10 .........................................................................................182 . ....192.1 ...192.2 .............202.3 Skype..202.4 TeamViewer..20 2.5 Adobe Acrobat Connect...212.6 GoToMeeting...223 ++....243.1 ++...243.2 ++........284 .....324.1 ......324.2 -....334.3 ....34.....35 .36

, , . , . , , :1) . .2). .3) ++.

1 . 1.1

, (, , , ). , 12500 ( ). , . . . , , , , . . , . , : ( ), ( ) ( ). Ethernet, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, GPRS . , (, ) . Ethernet Wi-Fi. , Frame Relay, Token ring, , , . , , , , . () , ( ) . , . ( RIP). . , . , , , . , , OSI - . , LAN: ( ), . , , , , . , , IPv4, , IANA ( RFC 1918 RFC 1597):10.0.0.010.255.255.255;172.16.0.0172.31.255.255;192.168.0.0192.168.255.255. , , ; . - , IP , . IPv6, . , , , NAT (WAN). ( ).

1.2

, . , , , . , , . , , . TCP/IP, SONET/SDH, MPLS, ATM Frame relay. X.25, Frame relay. , . . , , ( ) , , , . , . , , , , , . , . , . , , , , , , . , . , .

1.3 1.4 LAN VPN

, , // VPN. VPN- . : , PPPoE, PPTP L2TP (PPTP+IPSec). PPP, IP-. ( ) IP- . (VPN, Dial-in ) proxyarp IP-, VPN-. , , ARP- MAC- , VPN-.

1.5 Ethernet

Ethernet , , T-, . , , . . T- - , . . Ethernet . Ethernet : , . . , , . , Ethernet 10 , . Ethernet . Ethernet ISA : 8-, 16- 32-. 8- 8- 16- IBMXT IBMPC, 16- . 8- IBMAT, . 16- 16- . ISA, EISA Micro Channel. IBM AT , - 80486, - PS/2 IBM. . 8 8- 16 16- 32- . Ethernet / . (DMA). () . , , -. , , . , ( ) /, , . 1.6 , . , , , ( MAC- FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF) . , ( ) , . (2) OSI MAC-. . . ( ), MAC- . , . - . () , MAC- -, . , , , MAC- , , . MAC- - - , . , . () . . , .1. (Store and Forward). , , .2. (cut-through). . , .3. (fragment-free) . . ( 64 store-and-forward, cut-through)., , , , . . , , 10 / 100 /.1.7 (, ), . , . - , , . . :1. () (SMF Step Index Single Mode Fiber), ITU-T G.652 .2. (DSF Dispersion Shifted Single Mode Fiber), ITU-T G.653. DSF , .3. (NZDSF Non-Zero Dispersion Shifted Single Mode Fiber), ITU-T G.655. - : . , , . 2006- 111, 10 40 / . , , , . 1.8

, Ethernet . , . () : USB, FireWire . (), . OSI, . , . , . , Ethernet . , . . , , , , , , , , . , . 1.9 , , ( ), ( ). , , . . .. ( ). ( ), ( ) ( ) ( ). ( ).1.10 , , ( ), . ( ) , . ( ) UTP 5 . . , Ethernet, Arcnet Token ring. , , () .

2 . 2.1

FTP, "" Internet. , , , - . - S . . , , , . . , . , . . , , () . ( ), , , ..- , , , - . . , - .

2.2 2.3 Skype

Skype , (VoIP), . - ( 25 , ), ( 10 ), () . - . Skype [: Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, iOS, Windows Mobile, Google Android, PSP, Symbian. Java.2.4 TeamViewer TeamViewer , . TeamViewer Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, iOS Linux ( Android). , NAT , -. TeamViewer GmbH 2005 . - , TeamViewer 15 , 50- .2.5 Adobe Acrobat ConnectAdobe Acrobat Connect -, -. Adobe Acrobat Connect Adobe :1) Adobe Connect Pro Meeting . , , , , . , .2) Adobe Connect Pro Training , , , . , , Adobe Presenter, , .3) Adobe Connect Pro Events , , , , .2.6 GoToMeeting

GoToMeeting -, Citrix Online, Citrix Systems. - , . GoToMeeting , , , . , , . Microsoft Outlook, Lotus Notes, .

3 ++ 3.1 ++

++ , , string ++. string , , , . ( , main(). ++ - , ('\0'). , : , : char str1[10] = "string1"; // , . , - . , , , , . , "QWERTY" char[7], "" char[1]. char[1]? , , , ASCII- 0 ( escape- '\0'). , , , , .. , . - . , char str[] = "ABCDE"; - "ABCDE". , 6 : 'A','B','C','D','E' '\0'. - - . ++ . , ++ ( , ), , str "ABCDE", 5 , C++ 6 , ( 0) . , ( ) - (, - ): char str[10] = "ABCDE"; 10 'A','B','C','D' 'E' , -. 5 "ABCDE", . , , , . . char str[]={'A','B','C','D','E','\0'}; , , . . , . . "", . . . - , , : 'A' '\n'. - , . , , "Visual C++\n" : 'V', 'i', 's', 'u', 'a', 'l', ' ', 'C', '+', '+', '\n', '\0'. , "A" - : 'A' '\0'. "", : "" "" , "". :// , . #includevoid main(){ char str1 [ ] = "1234567890", /* str1 */ str2[11]; //

/* str2 str1 */ for(int i = 0; str1[i] != '\0'; i++) str2[i] = str1[i];// - str2. str2 [i] = '\0'; cout _; , , , cout