Bai Giang Hoa Hoc Glucid

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Bi ging ha sinh - Ha hc Glucid

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  • HO HC GLUCID

  • MC TIU BI HC1. Trnh by c nh ngha, phn loi, vai tr ca glucid.2. Trnh by c cu to, tnh cht chung ca monosaccharid, oligosaccharid, vai tr mt s polysaccharid.

  • 1. I CNG1.1 nh nghaGlucid l hp cht hu c, phn t c 3 nguyn t to thnh: C, H, O. Cng thc chung (CH2O)n, n3 gi l carbohydrat hay saccharid.

  • 1.2 Phn loi

  • 2. MONOSACCHARID2.1 Cu toL dn xut ca polyalcol (3 7 C) c cha nhm carbonyl. L n v ca glucid, khng b thy phn.

  • 2. MONOSACCHARID (tip)2.2 Danh phpC 4 cch gi tn: Cch 1.Gi theo ha chc kh: aldose, cetose.Cch 2. Gi theo s carbon: S carbon theo ting Hylp + ose. 3C Triose 6C Hexose 4C Tetrose 7C Heptose5C Pentose

  • Cch 3. Gi gp 2 cch: V d: nhm kh l aldehyd, 5C gi l: aldopentose.Cch 4. Gi tn c bit: fructose (cetohexose), glucose (aldohexose)

  • 2.3 Mt s khi nimng phn dy D v dy L ca monosaccharid:Ly glyceraldehyd lm chun, khi nhm OH nguyn t C bt i xng nm bn phi gi l dy D, cn bn tri l dy L.

  • ng phn quang hc ca monosaccharid - S lng ng phn quang hc: N = 2n (n l s carbon bt i xng C*).

    - Tr dihydroxyaceton cn cc monosaccharid khc u c C* nn c ng phn quang hc.

  • ng phn v ca monosaccharid OH bn acetal: nm di mt phng dng (cis). nm trn mt phng dng (trans)

  • Theo qui c dng vng:- Phi cnh ca MS thng khng vit nguyn t carbon trong vng. - Gch dc ng pha trn hay pha di ca mt phng ch nhm OH

  • 2.4 Tnh cht ca Monosaccharid2.4.1 Tnh cht l hcD tan trong nc, tan t trong alcol, khng tan trong este. V ngt.

  • 2.4.2 Tnh cht ha hc Tnh kh (b oxy ha)Nhm (-CHO) b oxy ha thnh (-COOH).

  • Phn ng Fehling: Monosaccharid b oxy ha bi mui kim loi nng trong mi trng kim.

  • B oxy ha bi axit m c:

    ng sorbitol c nhiu trong qu l, qu to, ngi mc bnh tiu ng c th s dng c ng ny.

  • Phn ng to Furfural (Molish)

  • Phn ng to ete v este -To ete (lin kt glucosid)): nhm OH bn acetal ca MS ny kt hp vi nhm OH alcol ca MS khc

    -To este: cc este phosphat ca monosaccharid c vai tr quan trng trong trao i cht nh trong tng hp glucose, glycogen. 1-4 glucosid1-6 glucosid

  • Phn ng to thnh ozazon natriacetat Monosaccharid + phenylhydrazin (d) ------------> ozazon (tinh th)t0 Glucozazon Galactozazon (Glucose, fructose, mannose) (Galactose) Pht hin galactose/nc tiu (bnh nhn b bnh galactose niu).

  • 3. OLIGOSACCHARID3.1 nh nghaGlucid c cha t 2- 8 gc monosaccharid lin kt vi nhau bng lin kt glucosid . C hai loi chnh l di v trisaccharid.3.2 Disaccharid (DS)L loi glucid m mi phn t ca chng khi thu phn cho 2 phn t monosaccharid.

  • DS c tnh kh v khng c tnh kh:Nu nhm OH ca monosaccharid ny kt hp vi nhm OH bn acetal ca monosaccharid khc disaccharid vn cn mt nhm OH bn acetal cn tnh kh.Nu 2 nhm OH bn acetal ca 2 monosaccharid kt hp vi nhau disaccharid khng cn nhm OH bn acetal khng cn tnh kh.

  • Maltoseng mch nha Lactoseng sa Saccharoseng ma Ngun gcmm ht ng cc sa ma (14-25%)c ci ng

    Cu to

    Tnh chtc tnh kh c tnh kh khng c tnh kh

  • 4. PolysaccharidPolysaccharid gm 2 loi:Polysaccharid thun.Polysaccharid tp.

  • 4.1 Polysaccharid thun

    Tinh bt Glycogen Cellulose Ngun gcHt la (60-80%)Ng (65-75%) Khoai ty (12 - 20%) ng vt (gan v c) Mng t bo thc vt KLPT106 - 107 107 - 109 106 - 2.106 Cu to+ Amylose

    + Amylopectin

    Glycogen phn nhnh nhiu hn v di ca mi nhnh ngn hn Amylopectin Tnh chtAmylose + I2 xanh lAmylopectin + I2tm Glycogen + I2 nuB thu phn bi -glucosidase

  • AmyloseAmylopectin

  • 4.2 Polysaccharid tp

    Khu tr Vai tr Acid hyaluronicthu tinh th, cung nhau thai, dch khp, van tim, sn phi thai, da,sn cht kt dnh t/ch l/kt, cn tr s xm nhp Condrointin sulfat A sn, xng, sn phi thai, gic mc Condrointin sulfat B da Condrointin sulfat Cda, gn, dy chng, cung nhau thai, van tim Keratan sulfatKeratan sulfat 1 gic mcKeratan sulfat 2 snHeparin Heparin sulfat gan, trong thnh mch mu v trong phi chng ng mu

  • * Acid hyaluronicn v: -D-glucuronic + N- acetylglucosamin bng lk (1-3)glucosid. Cc n v lk vi nhau bng lk (1-4) glucosid.

  • * Condrointin sulfat A, CCu to chung: A.glucuronic + N-acetyl-D-galactosamin-sulfat. S khc bit gia chng l v tr nhm sulfat.Condrointin sulfat ACondrointin sulfat C(A.glucuronic + N-acetyl-galactosamin-4-sulfat)(A.glucuronic + N-acetyl-galactosamin-6-sulfat)* Condrointin sulfat B(A.L-iduronic + N-acetyl-galactosamin-4-sulfat)

  • * Keratan sulfatn v: D-galactose + N- acetylgalactosamin-6-sulfat bng lk (1-4)glucosid. Cc n v lk vi nhau bng lk (1-3) glucosid.

  • * Heparin, heparin sulfat n v: D-glucuronat-2-sulfat + N-acetyl-glucosamin-6-sulfat Cc thnh phn v n v lk vi nhau bng lk (1-4) glucosid.

  • CU HI LNG GI- Cu 1. Trong cc glucid sau, cc cht th hin tnh kh l:Glucose, fructose, tinh bt. Glucose, fructose, saccaroseFructose, tinh bt, saccarose.Glucose, fructose, lactose. DGlucose, fructose, lactose.

  • - Cu 2. Tn khoa hc y ca Maltose l:1-2 D Glucosido D Glucose1-4 D Glucosido D Glucose1-4 D Glucosido D Glucose1-2 D Glucosido D GlucoseCU HI LNG GIB1-4 D Glucosido D Glucose

  • - Cu 3. Cc cht no sau y l Polysaccarid tp: Cellulose, tinh bt, heparinCondroitin sunfat, heparin, glycosaminglycanTinh bt, condroitin sunfat, heparinAcid hyaluronic, glycogen, celluloseCU HI LNG GIBCondroitin sunfat, heparin, glycosaminglycan

  • - Cu 4. Cc nhm cht sau y, nhm no c cu to phn nhnhCU HI LNG GIAmylopectin, GlycogenD

  • - Cu 5. Cng thc bn l cu to ca:CU HI LNG GILactoseB

  • - Cu 6. Phn ng Molish dng nhn bit:

    Cc cht l acid aminCc cht l MonosaccharidCc cht c nhm cetonCc cht c nhm aldehydCU HI LNG GICc cht l MonosaccharidB

  • - Cu 7: Cc cht no sau y thuc nhm Polysaccarid thun:

    Saccarose, Heparin, GlycogenFructose, Amylopectin, HeparinGlycogen, Condroitin Sulfat, HeparinGlycogen, Amylose, AmylopectinGlycogen, Amylose, AmylopectinCU HI LNG GIC

    **