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  • I

    Design of Efficient Millimeter Wave Planar

    Antennas for 5G Communication Systems

    Mohammed H. Abu Saada

    Supervised by

    Dr. Talal F. Skaik

    Assistant prof. of Electrical Engineering

    Dr. Ramadan A. Alhalabi

    Assistant prof. of Electrical Engineering

    A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment

    of the requirements for the degree of

    Master of Electrical Engineering Communication Systems Engineering

    April/2017

    The Islamic UniversityGaza

    Research and Postgraduate Affairs

    Faculty of Engineering

    Master of Electrical Engineering

    Communication Systems

    -

  • :

    Design of Efficient Millimeter Wave Planar Antennas

    for 5G Communication Systems

    . -

    Declaration

    I hereby certify that this submission is the result of my own work, except

    where otherwise acknowledged, and that this thesis (or any part of it)

    has not been submitted for a higher degree or quantification to any other

    university or institution. All copyrights are reserves toIslamic University

    Gaza strip paiestine

    :Student's name :

    :Signature :

    :Date 12/5/1122 :

  • II

    Abstract

    Fifth generation (5G) is the next major phase of mobile telecommunications standards beyond the

    current 4G, which will operate at millimeter-wave frequency band. In any wireless device, the

    performance of radio communications depends on the design of an efficient antenna. This thesis

    presents designs for microstrip antennas (single element and arrays at 28 GHz), where 28GHz is

    one of the standard frequencies of the 5G communications.

    A parametric study to select the best single element design to use it in the array has been performed.

    The study included investigation on the impact of feeding technique, substrate dielectric constant,

    substrate thickness and substrate loss tangent on the antenna parameters. Different feeding

    techniques are studied, and gap-coupled feeder has been found the best in terms of bandwidth that

    is greater than 1 GHz.

    Based on the best optimized single element patch, several microstrip antenna array designs at 28

    GHz are proposed with number of elements up to 16 and those designs meet the requirements of

    5G antennas. Commercial simulation software (CST) and (ADS) were utilized to design single

    element, linear and planar arrays.

    Furthermore, dual polarized Linear and planar arrays were designed for handset mobiles and base

    stations respectively, with good isolation between vertical and horizontal ports (better than 20 dB).

  • III

    30 . 2020

    . 28

    )

    ...( )

    1 .

    17 16

    .

    (CST) .(ADS)

  • IV

    DEDICATION

    To

    My Parents Hassan & Enayat

    My Wife Islam

    My children

    Enayat, Anas, Tala, Leen

    and

    My Family

  • V

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    First and the foremost, I would like to thank Almighty Allah for bestowing His blessings upon me

    and giving me the strength to carry out and complete this work.

    I am extremely grateful to my supervisors Dr. Ramadan Alhalabi and Dr. Talal Skaik for their

    valuable advice, guidance, beneficial discussions and encouragement throughout my research.

    Apart from their valuable academic advice and guidelines, they have been extremely kind,

    friendly, and helpful. I am also very grateful to my thesis committee members, Dr. Tamer Abu

    Foul and Dr. Fady El-Nahal for their care, cooperation and constructive advices.

    Special thanks to my colleagues and friends especially Eng. Belal A. Alsaati, Eng. Mohammed A.

    Matar, Eng. Mohammed A. Tubail, and Eng. Mohammed J. Hannona for their encouragements

    and various help that they provided throughout my graduate studies.

    Special thanks to my friends Ahmed R. Qarrot, Abdallah H. Abu Saada, Zakaria A. Alshaghnouby,

    ,Mohammed Kh. Abu Salem, Mohammed Z. Aldahshan, Mohammed F. Kullab and Khalil

    Eslayyeh.

    Also, I want to thank my Indian friend Sudipta Maity for his valuable advice and guidance.

    I would like to give my special thanks to my parents, brothers, sister and my wife for their support,

    patience and love. Without their encouragement, motivation and understanding, it would have been

    impossible for me to complete this work. Finally, my sincere thanks are due to all people who

    supported me to complete this work.

  • VI

    Contents Abstract II

    Abstract in Arabic III

    Declaration IV

    Acknowledgment V

    Table of Contents VI

    List of Tables . VIII

    List of Figures IX

    1 Chapter 1 : Introduction .......................................................................................................... 1

    1. 1 5G Communications ......................................................................................................... 1

    1. 2 Background ...................................................................................................................... 2

    1. 3 planar Antennas at mm-Wave Frequencies ...................................................................... 2

    1. 4 Why at 28 GHz? ............................................................................................................... 3

    1. 5 Literature review .............................................................................................................. 4

    1. 6 Thesis motivation ............................................................................................................. 6

    1. 7 Thesis overview................................................................................................................ 6

    2 Chapter 2: Antenna Theory ..................................................................................................... 8

    2.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 8

    2.2 Maxwells equations ........................................................................................................ 9

    2.3 Antenna Parameters........................................................................................................ 10

    2.3. 1 Radiation Pattern ..................................................................................................... 10

    2.3. 2 Directivity ............................................................................................................... 11

    2.3. 3 Antenna Efficiency ................................................................................................. 12

    2.3. 4 Antenna radiation efficiency ................................................................................... 13

    2.3. 5 Antenna Gain .......................................................................................................... 14

    2.3. 6 Bandwidth ............................................................................................................... 14

    2.3. 7 Input Impedance...................................................................................................... 15

    2.3. 8 Polarization ............................................................................................................. 16

    2.4 Microstrip Antennas ....................................................................................................... 16

    2.4.1 Basic Characteristics ............................................................................................... 17

  • VII

    2.4.2 Feeding techniques: ................................................................................................ 18

    2.4.3 Designing Rectangular Microstrip Antenna ........................................................... 24

    3 Chapter 3: Single Element Design ........................................................................................ 27

    3.1 Antenna Substrate: ......................................................................................................... 27

    3.1.1 Substrate Thickness: ............................................................................................... 28

    3.1.2 Dielectric Constant (r ):......................................................................................... 32

    3.1.3 Substrate Loss Tangent: .......................................................................................... 33

    3.1.4 Copper cladding depth selection: ............................................................................ 35

    3.2 Feeding techniques: ........................................................................................................ 36

    3.3 single element patch antenna design .............................................................................. 40

    4 Chapter 4 : Antenna Array: .................................................................................................... 44

    4. 1 Introduction .................................................................................................................... 45

    4. 2 The Array Factor for Linear Arrays ............................................................................... 45

    4. 3 Antenna Array feeding Configuration................

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