THEORY NUMBER ONE The Modeling Theory Do Media Stars serve as role models for the public (particularly children? John Duke Wayne
Minorities Native Americans African Americans Latinos Do we form our opinion of people and cultures based on the way they are depicted in the media? Even in the news? The IMAGE Theory
Are They Finally Showing The Real American Male?
Outside Perception Theory We understand other cultures, societies, countries, the world in general by the way we see it in mass media. Perceptions of other countries. Dangers in the world.
The Arousal Theory Are Crazy People Inspired by Media Images to Commit Crimes?
The Agenda Setting Theory What is an agenda? What is a gatekeeper? Rupert Murdoch-
Benetton Advertisement When Did Aids Become a Newsworthy Issue?
Aids? News? When? Aids infects male homosexuals San Francisco, 1982 (brought to US via France) Aids became a raging epidemic but the mainstream media ignored it. Until the death of a famous American actor Rock Hudson due to aids October 22, 1985.
Hudsons death and the spread of Aids to the heterosexual population changed the medias agenda.
What drives the agenda? Size of disasters. Potential impact on nearby communities. Famous people, sex, violence Personal and political views of media owners Cultural sensitivity of editors and publishers. Political biases (social liberals, economic conservatives?)
The Bottom Line Theory
Money is the bottom line Film box office receipts TV and Radio Ratings Print Circulation and Ad Sales Public TV and Radio viewer donations, underwriting and some government money Music CD sales
Bottom Line Bigger is Better Huge corporations taking over media Profit is the major factor The Lowest Common Denominator
Act-React Theory What is the cause? What is the effect? Which is cause media or society? Did sexual revolution lead to more sex on TV or did more sex on TV lead to the sexual revolution? From Ozzie and Harriet (who couldnt sleep in the same bed-on TV-even though they were married)... To Seinfelds Master of Your Domain episode
Socialization Theory Media helps socialize us? Southerners losing their accents media are making Americans alike. Fashions, trends all influence, perhaps dictated, by media
I say, Grand Mama, I believe we do not speak in the same manner as we did in times past. What might be your ideas on the subject?
Experiment. On left, man who has never watched television. On right, same man after watching 182 consecutive hours of watching television. And who do you think is the happiest?
Vast Wasteland Theory When television is good, nothing--not the theater, not the magazines or newspapers-- nothing is better. But when television is bad, nothing is worse. I invite you to sit down in front of your tele- vision set when your station goes on the air and stay there without a book, magazine, newspaper, profit and-loss sheet or rating book to distract you--and keep your eyes glued to that set until the station signs off. I can assure you that you will observe a vast wasteland. Newton Minow - 1961
Is Television Better? Documentaries Zero Were there reality shows in 1961 No. Is there more sex on television? Yes. Is the sex irresponsible? Yes. Does television tackle tough issues with in depth reports and analysis? No. Does television cave in to pressures from the powerful. Yes.