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Medium heavy hyper nuclear spectroscopic experiment by the (e,eK+) reactionGraduate school of science, Tohoku UniversityToshiyuki Gogami for HES-HKS collaboration
1.Introduction2.Experimental Setup (JLab E05-115)
M2HY = (Ee + MT - EK+ - Ee)2 - ( pe - pK+ - pe )2Missing Mass : We have been performing hypernuclear spectroscopic experiment by the (e,eK+) reaction since 2000 at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab). The (e,eK+) can achieve 100 keV (FWHM) energy resolution compared to a few MeV (FWHM) by the (K-,-) and (+,K+) experiments (Table.1). Therefore, more precise hypernuclear structures can be investigated by the (e,eK+) experiment. 7He, 9Li, 10Be, 12B,28Al and 52V were measured in the experiment at JLab Hall C. In addition, 9Li, 12B, 16N were measured in the experiment at JLab Hall A.
Figure.1 : HES-HKS group photo in the experimental hall C in JLab (2009).Table.1 : The features of (e,eK+) reaction comparing to (+,K+) and (K-,-) reactions.Figure.2 : The experimental setup of JLab E05-115 (2009)Measure with spectrometers binding energyCross section The (e,eK+) experiment is a coincidence experiment between scattered electron and generated kaon. The cross section of (e,eK+) are larger at forward scattered angles of these two particles. Therefore, both of these two particles need to be detected at forward angles at the same time. To do so, a dipole magnet (splitter magnet) was set just after the target to separate scattered electron and kaon into different directions. Figure.1 shows the experimental setup of JLab E05-115. There are HES (High resolution Electron Spectrometer) and HKS (High resolution Kaon Spectrometer) to measure momenta of scattered electron and kaon associated with (e,eK+) reaction, respectively. Both HES and HKS consist of QQD magnets.HES HKSp/p~210-4~210-4Momentum[GeV/c]0.844 0.1441.20 0.15Angle[degree]3.0 9.01.0 13.0Beam energy[GeV]2.344Target(Hypernuclei)7Li , 9Be , 10B , 12C , 52Cr (,CH2,H2O)(7He, 9Li, 10Be, 12B, 52V) (,,)3.Particle identification4.New tracking code for high multiplicity data
Figure.3 : Picture of HKS detector packageNPENPEMass square [GeV/c2]2+1 [m]K+p, +K+p+pK+Figure.5 : NPE of Cherenkov detector vs. mass squareCherenkov detectors -AC,WC-Aerogel (n=1.05)Water (n=1.33)Drift chambers-KDC1,KDC2-TOF walls -2X,1Y,1X-(Plastic scintillators) 250 [m]TOF 170 [ps]Aerogel (n=1.05)Water (n=1.33)
Figure.4 : Mass square distributionMass square [GeV/c2]2After Cherenkov cutK+Before Cherenkov cut
SIMULATION5.Energy scale calibration6.Summarye , e+Target
It is getting harder to perform the (e,eK+) experiment as the proton number of the target, Ztar is larger. This is because that the background events which are caused by electromagnetic processes roughly proportional to Z2tar. Mainly, the electron arm suffers from these backgrounds. However, the hadron arm (HKS) also suffers from them which are not on the HKS optics . A positron generated in the target by pair creation process hit the vacuum chamber which is just after the HKS dipole magnet, and generate background events such as positron and electron in the HKS detectors (Fig.6). These background events make the singles rate of HKS be higher ( ~30MHz/plane, 8A beam on 52Cr target). Figure.6 : Background simulation of HKS We used two planar-type drift chambers which have 6-layers (uuxxvv) in each chamber for HKS tracking. Figure.7 shows the multiplicity of the typical layer of the drift cambers. The multiplicity for 52Cr target (~5) is much higher than that for CH2 target (~2) as you can see the figure. The conventional tracking code that we used in JLab hall C cannot handle high multiplicity data efficiently. Therefore, we lose events for high multiplicity data in the tracking stage. To deal with the high multiplicity data, a new tracking code need to be developed.Figure.7 : Multiplicity of the typical layer of HKS drift chambers.p(e,eK+)p(e,eK+)0~4 MeV/c2 (FWHM)Very PreliminaryQF from 12CAccidental b.g.
Figure.8 : Event display of the developed hit-wire selection for tracking. Blue squares represent hit TOF segments, green regions are selective regions determined by the TOF combinations, red markers are selected hit-wires for tracking and black markers are hit-wires which are not used for tracking.A new event selection routine is developed and implemented to increase the tracking efficiency for the high multiplicity data. Before the pattern recognition which is in the first stage of the tracking, hit-wires to use for tracking are selected by the combination of the TOF detectors considering HKS optics (Fig.8).
After this development, the number of kaons is increased by ~130%, and also the analysis time is decreased by ~30% for 52Cr target. Figure.9 : Coincidence time between HES and HKS.Figure.10 : Missing mass spectrum of CH2 target One of the large advantages of the (e,eK+) reaction is that the absolute energy calibration can be done with data of and 0 converted from a proton target such as CH2 and H2O target. We measure both positions and angles of electron and kaon at the reference planes. Then, those information are converted to momentum vectors at the target by transfer matrices to calculate the missing mass. Therefore, the tuning of the transfer matrices is a heart part to measure hypernuclei with better energy resolution. Figure.10 shows a missing mass spectrum of CH2 target. When the real coincidence events are chosen, peaks of and 0 clearly can be seen on the Quasi-free events which come from 12C and accidental background events. These peaks are used for the energy scale calibration. Also, thick tungsten alloy sieve slits which are set just before the Q-magnet of each spectrometer are used forcalibration of angular component.We performed the (e,eK+) experiment at JLab Hall-C in 2009 (JLab E05-115), and successfully took data of 7He, 9Li, 10Be, 12B and 52V.
Kaon identificationWhen the cut applied to survive ~90%,