1Measurement scales1the Structural-Functional Social Support Scale (SFSS). 2the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) 3the Social Support: Personal Resource Questionnaire (PRQ85) part 2, 4Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS).
5the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List ISEL6Social Support Rating Scale, SSRS7the ENRICHD Social Support Instrument (ESSI) 8the Perceived Social Support From Family Scale 9the Social Support Questionnaire
10the Social Provisions Scale 11Religious Support Scale, 12Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire 13Informational Support Questionnaire
The Structural-Functional Social Support Scale (SFSS)
It has been developed especially for measuring disease-specific social networks and social support received by people having a serious somatic disorder or chronic diseasefor exa-mple cancer. In the questionnaire, the participants were asked to evaluate their received and needed support at the work place or from the occupational health services
The SFSS focuses on three aspects of social relationships: (1) the existence and number of cancer- specific sources of social support, (2) the amount of support received from these sources, (3) whether this support corresponds to the expectations of the patient. Taina Taskila.Marja-Liisa Lindbohm.Rami Martikainen et al. Cancer survivors received and needed social support from their work place and the occupational health services [J]. Support Care Cancer ,2006( 14): 427435
the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS)
The MSPSS provides assessment of three sources of support: family (FA), friends (FR), and significant other (SO).1 It is short (12 items in total) and is ideal for (a) research that requires assessment of multiple variables and (b) populations which, for one reason or another, cannot tolerate a long questionnaire Sheung-Tak Cheng. The multidimensional scale of perceived social support: dimensionality and age and gender differences in adolescents 2004. www.elsevier.com/locate/paid
2 MSPSS items are easy to understand (requiring just fourth grade reading level) and are therefore suitable for young populations or populations with limited literacy level.3 Despite being a brief instrument, MSPSS measures support from three sources, and in particular, the SOsuch as boyfriendgirlfriend, teacher and counselorsubscales rather unique among measures in the field.
Family subscale 3. My family really tries to help me 4. I get the emotional help and support I need from my family 8. I can talk about my problems with my family 11. My family is willing to help me make decisionsFriends subscale 6. My friends really try to help me 7. I can count on my friends when things go wrong 9. I have friends with whom I can share my joys and sorrows 12. I can talk about my problems with my friendsSignificant other subscale 1. There is a special person who is around when I am in need 2. There is a special person with whom I can share my joys and sorrows 5. I have a special person who is a real source of comfort to me 10. There is a special person in my life who cares about my feelings
the Social Support: Personal Resource Questionnaire (PRQ85) part 2, 1This scale is based on Weisss social support model, which consider the individuals good health needs are achieved through specific social relations2 The social support including five aspects, that is Attachment/Intimacy AISocial Integration SIOpportunity for nurturance ONReassurance of worth RWAvailability of assistance AA
Weinert CMeasuring social supportrevision and further development of the Personal Resources questionnaireMeasurement of nursing outcomes [J]New York: Springer Publishing,1988,1:309-319
Emotional support involves verbal and nonverbal communic-ation of caring and concern and is believed to reduce distress by restoring self-esteem and permitting the expression of feelings.
Instrumental or practical support involves direct assistance with household tasks and provision of material goods transportation, money, physical assistance, and it may also help decrease feelings of loss of control
Informational support which involves the provision of information used to guide or advise, is believed to enhance perceptions of control by reducing confusion and providing patients with strategies to cope with their difficulties.
Taina Taskila.Marja-Liisa Lindbohm.Rami Martikainen et al. Cancer survivors received and needed social support from their work place and the occupational health services [J]. Support Care Cancer ,2006( 14): 427435
3Research of social support and related conceptSocial supportadjustmentQuality of lifesurvival
Cicero V . point out that perceived support from friends may predict the patient's tendency to consider cancer as a challenge and to take an active role in therapy and recovery, whereas social support from family was not predictive of various states of adjustment to cancer. Shelby RA point out that women with high levels of social support experienced better adjustment even when optimism was low. In contrast, among women with high levels of optimism, increasing social support did not provide an added benefit .1Cicero V, Lo Coco G, Gullo S . The role of attachment dimensions and perceived social support in predicting adjustment to cancer. Psychooncology. 2009 Feb 4. 2Shelby RA, Crespin TR, Wells-Di Gregorio SM, . Et al. Optimism, social support, and adjustment in African American women with breast cancer . J Behav Med. 2008 Oct;31(5):433-44.
Higher social support scores were significantly associated with higher scores in speech , aesthetics social disruption and general mental health and with fewer depressive symptoms but not with general physical health or eatingKarnell LH, Christensen AJ, Rosenthal EL .et al. Influence of social support on health-related quality of life outcomes in head and neck cancer . Head Neck. 2007 Feb;29(2):143-6.
For patients with AML, higher levels of available social support predicted better survival. Within social support, the availability of instrumental support showed more consistent associations with 2-year survival than the availability of emotional support. Pinquart M, Hffken K, Silbereisen RK.et al. Social support and survival in patients with acute myeloid leukemia [J]. Support Care Cancer. 2007 Jan;15(1):81-7
4Influencing factorsreligiousbeliefsgendercountrydemographic factors timetreatment
Religious beliefs may not directly affect self-efficacy and adjustment; however, cancer patients who have religious beliefs may experience an enhanced sense of social support from a community with whom they share those beliefs. Howsepian BA, Merluzzi TV. Religious beliefs, social support, self-efficacy and adjustment to cancer [J]. Psychooncology. 2009 Feb 2.
women are more likely to seek and utilize support by comparison to men. Whereas women expected staff to provide informat- ion and emotional support, men felt that emotional support from staff was inappropriate and perceived information as supportive in helping them deal with their emotions.. Clarke SA, Booth L, Velikova G. et al. Social support: gender differences in cancer patients in the United Kingdom : Cancer Nurs. 2006 Jan-Feb;29(1):66-72.
Methods: Cross-cultural studies Sample: Age-matched samples of 135 BCSs from Norway and 148 from Finland were examined Result: Finnish compared to Norwegian BCSs reported significantly less received social support from supervisors, while they received significantly more social support from occupational health service (OHS) . Gudbergsson SB, Foss SD, Lindbohm ML,et al. Received and needed social support at the workplace in Norwegian and Finnish stage 1 breast cancer survivors: a study from the Nordic Study Group of Cancer and Work (NOCWO)[J]. Acta Oncol. 2009;48(1):67-75.
The men who had lymphoma, had received chemotherapy, or had low education level needed more support. The need for practical support from the occupational health personnel was fivefold between the chemotherapy-treated and those not treated. Taina Taskila.Marja-Liisa Lindbohm.Rami Martikainen et al. Cancer survivors received and needed social support from their work place and the occupational health services [J]. Support Care Cancer ,2006( 14): 427435
Unemployment, low level of education and single/divorced/widowed status were related to greater use of cognitive defense. Though these patients are most in need of professional support. women who used a defensive hostile style tended to receive poor social support. Drageset S, Lindstrm TC. Coping with a possible breast cancer diagnosis: demographic factors and social support .[J], J Adv Nurs. 2005 Aug;51(3):217-26.
Schroevers MJ:1sample:206 long-term cancer survivors 2methods: This longitudinal study(3 months and 8 years after diagnosis ) 3toolsSocial Support List (SSL) the Silver Lining Questionnaire (SLQ) 4resultsThe findings suggest that getting support from family and friends in the period following diagnosis is an important resource that may help cancer survivors to find positive meaning in the cancer experience.
Schroevers MJ, Helgeson VS Sanderman R. Type of social support matters for prediction of posttraumatic growth among cancer survivors [J], Psychooncology. 2009 Feb 27