Un hombre que no sabe ningn idioma extranjero es ignorante del suyo.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
6. Mapa de Asia 7. Mapa de Japn 8. Languages of the world 9.
Centum and satem Languages
Department of Linguistics University of California, Berkeley
In a lecture given in 1786, Sir William Jones, Chief Justice of India and founder of the Royal Asiatic Society, noted the strong relationship in verbal roots and the grammatical forms of Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin. This similarity, he remarked, could not have been produced by accident; these languages must have originated from a common source. He added that Gothic, Celtic, and Old Persian may have come from the same origin. Others had also noted the similarity between Sanskrit and other languages by comparing words from different languages. Though he was not the first, Jones is often credited with the birth of Indo-European linguistics by eloquently stating that a common source, later to be identified as Proto-Indo-European, was the ancestor of these related languages. The discovery of sound laws in the 1860's helped to establish the foundation of comparative Indo-European linguistics. It is upon such regularly occurring sound laws that allowed comparisons to be made; exceptions to the laws needed to be explained. Today the study of IE linguistics draws on work done in phonetics, dialectology, typology, and other fields but the basis of comparison still rests on the set of correspondences between the languages.
10. Indoeuropean language tree 11. Stem languages 12. Map of Indoeuropean languages 13. El idioma indoeuropeo 14. Afro-asiatico - 15. Lenguas alticas y lenguas sino-tibetanas Ainu ---- Kennewick Man 16. Tipologa lingstica (1)
Lenguas aglutinantes: japons, coreano, mongol, etc.
Lenguas analticas: chino, tibetano, tai, vietnamita, birmano, *ingls
Sobre 1.800 palabras de kanji recolectadas de los libros de enseanza de japons:
1. las que tienen mismo significado en ambos idiomas: aprox. 1.200
2. palabras aproximadas en su significado: aprox. 80
3. palabras totalmente distintas en su significado: 70
4. palabras de kanji que no existen en el chino:510
Chosen go no susume, 1994
30. Comparaci n entre el japons, el coreano y el chino
De las 1.200 palabras de la Clasificacin I, 1.170 palabras tienen el mismo significado en los tres idiomas. De las 510 palabras de la Clasificacin 4, 300 palabras se encuentran en el idioma coreano
japons chino coreano
reizooko dian bng xiang neng sang go
yoohukux zhung yanbok
meesaku yumngde myeong sak
buji png n mu-sa
Zutin w qle tshgun.
Fui a labib lioteca ayer.
J nti nw q tushgun.
Voy a la biblioteca hoy.
M ngti nw q tushgun .
Ira la biblioteca maana.
he ke (hacker)
The term "Mandarin" refers to a group of Chinese dialects spoken in most of northern and southwestern China. Mandarin is known as("common language") or(Beijing language) in the People's Republic of China (PRC),("national language") in Taiwan, and("Chinese language") in Singapore and Malaysia. Mandarin can also refer to Standard Mandarin, loosely based on the dialect of Beijing, the capital of PRC. In everyday usage, however, Mandarin refers to a large number of dialects that vary in mutual intelligibility. The English term "Mandarin" comes from the Portuguesemandarim , borrowed from Sanskritmantrin"minister".
Chinese is a written language of great antiquity with an unbroken history dating back to 1,500 BC. There are several main periods in the history of literary (written) Chinese:
Preclassical(1,500 to 500BC) The earliest records of this period are short oracle inscriptions on bone and tortoise shell and an anthology of 305 poems from which scholars have been able to get a great deal of information about the language of that period.
Classical(500BC to 200AD) This period begins with the earliest writings ofConfuciusand ends with theHan dynasty(206BC - 220AD). There are many prose works dating back to this period.
Postclassical(200AD to mid 20th century) The language of this period was mod