Not a full sentence.
Not a complete thought
Can have a subject or a verb or neither
Has a subject
Has a verb
Independent & Dependent=Subordinate
Can express a complete thought
Group of related words that does not contain a subject and verb
and is used as a part of speech
A group of words that contains a subject and a verb and is used
as part of a sentence or a sentence by itself.
Which of the following are phrases and clauses?
In my room—Phrase
The cat went under the bed—Clause
Until next week
Quickly walking to the store
Yet they tried
A phrase is a group of related words that is used as a part of
______ and does not contain both a _______ and a _______.
A phrase ______ stand alone as a sentence
A clause has both a _______ and a _______.
A clause _______ stand alone as a sentence if it’s an independent
A phrase is a group of related words that is used as a part of speech
and does not contain both a subject and a verb.
A phrase cannot stand alone as a sentence
A clause has both a subject and a verb.
A clause can stand alone as a sentence if it’s an independent clause.
When was the telephone invented?
They went skiing in the Swiss Alps.
Rivers, seas and oceans:
The river Volga flows into the Caspian Sea.
Species of animals:
The domestic cat has lived alongside humans
since the time of Pharaohs.
The Seychelles are a group of islands in the
The sand on this beach was imported from the
The Grand Hotel is in Baker Street.
We are going to the Odeon this evening.
Which newspaper shall I buy – the Independent
or the Herald?
The Welsh are famous for their singing.
Museums, Art galleries:
You should go to the Science Museum. It’s very
He used to work for the BBC
He is the tallest boy in our class.
When there is only one of something:
The earth goes round the sun.
To talk about particular nouns when it is clear what we are referring to:
Where is the dog? I want to take him for a walk.
To talk about previously mentioned things:
There is a cat in the yard. The cat is black.
With names of shops:
• I'll get the card at Smith's.
• Can you go to Boots for me?
With uncountable nouns:
• Rice is the main food in Asia.
• Milk is often added to tea in England.
War is destructive. With years:
• 1948 was a wonderful year.
• Do you remember 1995?
With the names of individual mountains, lakes and islands:
• Mount McKinley is the highest mountain in Alaska.
• She lives near Lake Windermere.
• Have you visited Long Island?
There is no article:
With most names of towns,
streets, stations and airports:
• Victoria Station is in the centre
• Can you direct me to Bond
• She lives in Florence.
• They're flying from Heathrow.
There is no article:
In some fixed expressions, forexample:
• by car• by train• by air• on foot• on holiday• on air (in broadcasting)• at school• at work• at University• in church• in prison• in bed
The use of a and an indicates that the noun modified is indefinite (no
particular member of a group). They are used when the noun modified
is singular and general.
A and an are used when the noun can be counted
ex.: a vehicle, an apple
Place the word ‘a’ in front of any noun referring to one thing within a
type but not constrained to one token thing. In other words, use ‘a’ for
any one dog but not necessarily that dog.
ex.: A cat jumped onto my lap.
If an amount is referred to (any or one) the ‘a’ is no longer required.
ex.: Any box will do.
A precedes singular nouns that begin with a consonant
ex.: a student
Exception #1: When a singular noun begins with a vowel that sounds like
a consonant, a is used (a uniform; u in uniform sounds like yoo).
Exception #2: An before an h mute - an hour, an honor.
An precedes singular nouns that begin with a vowel
ex.: an address
When the article and the noun are separated by an adjective, the article
that agrees with the initial sound of the adjective is used (ex.: an English
student; a wrong address).
Neither a/an or the should be used when referring to proper names
unless it is part of the name.
ex.: George went to Cedar Point.
ex.: Kelly’s favorite book is The Lion, the Witch, and the
When a pronoun replaces the noun in a sentence, the a/an or the is
no longer needed.
ex.: The cat came running, or it came running.
To refer to something for the first time.
ex.: An elephant and a mouse fell in love.
To refer to a particular member of a group or class: such as the names of
jobs, nationalities, religions, musical instruments and days of the week.
ex.: John is a doctor, John is an Englishman, I was born on a
To refer to a “kind of,” or “example of” something.
ex.: The mouse had a tiny nose, The elephant had a long trunk, It was a
very strange car
With singular nouns, after the words 'what' and 'such‘.
ex.: What a shame!, She's such a beautiful girl
Meaning 'one', referring to a single object or person.
ex.: I'd like an orange and two lemons please, The burglar took a
diamond necklace and a valuable painting
Use a, an or the in each sentence.
Ismail spoke to _______ woman who had waved to him (a / the)
My mother bought me _____ expensive watch (a / an)
Cheryl borrowed _____ book from the library.(a / an)
Ali wore _____ new uniform to school. (a / an)
Did you see _____ new car which my father bought? (the/a)
Kiran is ____ Indian girl. (a / an)
Singapore lies quite near to ____ equator. (the / an)
Suman has travelled across _____ Atlantic Ocean. (an /the)
Ismail spoke to the woman who had waved to him (a / the)
My mother bought me an expensive watch (a / an)
Cheryl borrowed a book from the library.(a / an)
Ali wore a new uniform to school. (a / an)
Did you see a new car which my father bought? (the/a)
Kiran is an Indian girl. (a / an)
Singapore lies quite near to the equator. (the / an)
Suman has travelled across the Atlantic Ocean. (an /the)